Saturday, July 21, 2012

A Few Things that happened in 1965

1965 Jan 1, In SF gay celebrants held a Mardi-Gras themed costume ball at California Hall on Polk Street as a benefit for the Council on Religion and the Homosexual, co-founded in 1964 by Rev. Robert Cromey and Rev. Ted McIlvenna. Police set up flood lights at the entrance and harassed some 500 couples that entered. Mayor Shelley soon called for a full accounting of the episode from Police Chief Thomas Cahill.
(SFC, 10/30/96, p.E7)(SSFC, 6/24/07, p.E1)(SFCM, 6/10/01, p.2)

1965 Jan 2, The New York Jets signed University of Alabama quarterback Joe Namath for a reported $427,000.
(AP, 1/2/08)
1965 Jan 2, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr began a drive to register black voters.
(MC, 1/2/02)

1965 Jan 3, UC Berkeley officials announced a new campus policy that allowed political activity on campus.
(SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F5)

1965 Jan 4, President Johnson outlined the goals of his "Great Society" in his State of the Union address. The "Great Society" was to be achieved through a vast program that included an attack on diseases, a doubling of the war on poverty, greater enforcement of Civil Rights Law, immigration law reform and greater support of education.
(AP, 1/4/98)(HNQ, 9/11/99)
1965 Jan 4, T.S. Eliot, English poet, died in London at age 76. In 1995 Anthony Julius published "T.S. Eliot, Anti-Semitism and Literary Form." Julius was the lawyer who won a divorce settlement of $23 million for Princess Diana in 1996. "Little Gidding" is an Eliot work.
(SFC, 7/17/96, p.E6)(NH, 8/96, p.57)(AP, 1/4/98)

1965 Jan 5, Charles Robert Jenkins (b.1940) deserted his US Army post at the Korean DMZ hoping to be arrested, turned over to Russia and returned to the US. His plan failed and he ended up living in North Korea where he married Hitomi Soga, a Japanese woman kidnapped by North Korea in the 1970s. In 2004 Jenkins reunited with his wife in Indonesia and in September turned himself in to US military authorities in Japan. [see Sep 1, 1965] In 2008 Jenkins with Jim Frederick authored “The Reluctant Communist: My Desertion, Court-Martial, and Forty-Year Imprisonment in North Korea.”
(SFC, 11/2/02, p.A5)(SSFC, 5/23/04, p.A18)(WSJ, 7/12/04, p.A1)(AP, 9/1/04)(WSJ, 3/13/08, p.D9)(

1965 Jan 8, the Star of India and other stolen gems were returned to the American Museum of Natural History in New York.
(AP, 1/8/05)

1965 Jan 13, Two U.S. planes were shot down in Laos while on a combat mission.
(HN, 1/13/99)

1965 Jan 15, Sir Winston Churchill suffered a severe stroke.
(HN, 1/15/99)

1965 Jan 16, "Outer Limits" last aired on ABC-TV.
(MC, 1/16/02)
1965 Jan 16, Eighteen were arrested in Mississippi for the murder of three civil rights workers.
(HN, 1/16/99)

1965 Jan 20, Byrds recorded "Mr. Tambourine Man."
(MC, 1/20/02)
1965 Jan 20, Generalissimo Francisco Franco met with Jewish representatives to discuss legitimizing Jewish communities in Spain.
(MC, 1/20/02)

1965 Jan 24, Winston Churchill, former prime minister (1940-45, 51-55), died from a cerebral thrombosis in London at age 90. "I am always ready to learn, but I do not always like to be taught." Lord Moran (Sir Charles Wilson), his personal physician, later authored "Churchill At War: 1940-1945."
(AP, 1/24/98)(AP, 1/17/00)(HN, 1/24/01)(WSJ, 12/14/02, p.W10)

1965 Jan 27, Military leaders ousted the civilian government of Tran Van Huong in Saigon, South Vietnam.
(HN, 1/27/99)

1965 Jan 30, The state funeral of Winston Churchill took place.
(MC, 1/30/02)

1965 Jan, Petula Clark (b.1932), English singer, actress, and composer, made a #1 US hit with “Downtown,” a song composed by Tony Hatch.

1965 Feb 1, In Selma, Alabama, Reverend Martin Luther King Jr. and 770 of his followers were arrested on their civil rights march. They protested against voter discrimination in Alabama.
(SFEC, 3/16/97, p.T1)(HN, 2/1/99)

1965 Feb 2, Joe Orton's farce, "Loot," premiered in Brighton.
(MC, 2/2/02)

1965 Feb 6, A Viet Cong raid on a base in Pleiku, South Vietnam, killed 7-8 US GIs.
(HN, 2/6/99)(SFC, 11/27/99, p.C3)

1965 Feb 7, U.S. jets hit Don Hoi guerrilla base in reprisal for the Viet Cong raids. Pres. Johnson ordered the bombing of North Vietnam following the deaths of 9 US soldiers near Pleiku.
(HN, 2/7/99)(SFEC, 4/23/00, p.A19)
1965 Feb 7, Cassius Clay became a Muslim and adopted the name Muhammad Ali.
(MC, 2/7/02)

1965 Feb 8, Pres. Lyndon B. Johnson called for the development and protection of a balanced system of trails to help protect and enhance the quality of the outdoor experience.
(PCTA, 4/08)
1965 Feb 8, Eastern DC-7B crashed into the Atlantic off Jones Beach, NJ, and 84 people were killed.
(MC, 2/8/02)
1965 Feb 8, South Vietnamese bombed the North Vietnamese communications center at Vinh Linh.
(HN, 2/8/98)

1965 Feb 11, Pres. Lyndon Johnson ordered air strikes against targets in North Vietnam, in retaliation for guerrilla attacks on the American military in South Vietnam. The American "Rolling Thunder" bombing campaign intensified. In 2006 Rick Newman and Don Shepperd authored “Bury Us Upside Down: The Misty Pilots and the Secret Battle for the Ho Chi Minh Trail,” an account of the pilots who flew low scouting for targets that threatened US bombers.
(HN, 2/11/02)(WSJ, 3/2/06, p.D8)

1965 Feb 13, James Mitchell (23), amateur explorer, died inside Schroeder’s Pants Cave in Dolgeville, NY. His remains were recovered in 2006.
(SSFC, 6/25/06, p.A13)

1965 Feb 14, Malcolm X’s home was firebombed. No injuries were reported.
(HN, 2/14/98)

1965 Feb 15, Raymond Kurzweil, a diffident but self-possessed high school student, appeared as a guest on a game show called I've Got a Secret. He was introduced by the host, Steve Allen, and then played a short musical composition on a piano that was composed by a computer that he had built. By 2011 Kurzweil believed that we're approaching a moment when computers will become intelligent, and not just intelligent but more intelligent than humans. He believed that this moment was not only inevitable but imminent. According to his calculations, the end of human civilization as we know it would take place about 2045.
(AP, 2/11/11)
1965 Feb 15, Canada replaced the Union Jack flag with the Maple Leaf in ceremonies in Ottawa.
(CFA, '96, p.40)(HN, 2/15/98)(AP, 2/15/98)(440 Int’l., 2/15/99)
1965 Feb 15, John Lennon passed his driving test.
(440 Int’l., 2/15/99)
1965 Feb 15, Nat King Cole (b.1919), singer (Unforgettable, Mona Lisa), died.

1965 Feb 16, Four persons were held in a plot to blow up the Statue of Liberty, Liberty Bell and the Washington Monument.
(HN, 2/16/98)

1965 Feb 18, Alabama police were sent to Marion as some 500 people marched from a church toward the city jail to protest the jailing of a civil rights worker. Street lights went out and troopers began swinging clubs on the marchers. Jimmie Lee Jackson (26) was shot while aiding his grandfather (82) and mother. Jackson died 2 days later. In 2007 trooper James Bonard Fowler was indicted for the shooting death of Jackson. In 2010 Fowler (77) pleaded guilty to 2nd degree manslaughter and was sentenced to 6 months in jail.
(SFC, 5/10/07, p.A3)(SFC, 11/16/10, p.A17)
1965 Feb 18, Gambia gained independence from Britain.
(SFC, 7/1/97, p.A9)(

1965 Feb 19, Fourteen Vietnam War protesters were arrested for blocking U.N. doors in New York.
(HN, 2/19/98)

1965 Feb 20, The Ranger 8 spacecraft crashed on the moon after sending back 7,000 photos of the lunar surface.
(HN, 2/20/98)(AP, 2/20/98)

1965 Feb 21, Former Black Muslim leader El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz, aka Malcolm X (born as Malcolm Little, 39), was shot to death in front of 400 people in New York by assassins identified as Black Muslims. He was murdered at the Audubon Ballroom in Manhattan. His wife, Betty Shabazz, was pregnant with twins and sat in the audience along with his 4-year-old daughter Quibilah. Three men, Norman 3X Butler (Abdul Aziz), Khalil Islam, and Thomas Hagan, connected to the Nation of Islam were convicted for the assassination. Aziz was paroled in 1985 and in 1998 was appointed by Louis Farrakhan to head a Harlem mosque. In 1992 James H. Cone authored a book about Malcolm X and Martin Luther King. In 2011 Manning Marable authored “Malcolm X: A Life of Reinvention.”
(SFC, 6/24/97, p.A3)(AP, 2/21/98)(SFC, 3/26/98, p.A3)(SFC, 9/8/99, p.A7)(Econ, 4/9/11, p.94)

1965 Feb 23, Stan Laurel (74), the "skinny" half of the Laurel and Hardy comedy team, died in Santa Monica, Calif.
(AP, 2/23/00)

1965 Feb 24, Beatles began filming "Help" in Bahamas.
(MC, 2/24/02)

1965 Feb 26, Spoony Singh Sundher (1922-2006), Indian-born entrepreneur, opened his Hollywood Wax Museum on Hollywood Blvd. close to Grauman’s Chinese Theatre. He charged $1.50 admittance.
1965 Feb 26, Norman Butler was arrested for the murder of Malcolm X.
(HN, 2/26/98)
1965 Feb 26, West Germany ceased military aid to Tanzania.
(SC, 2/26/02)
1965 Feb 26, Jimmie Lee Jackson, civil rights activist, died of injuries.
(SC, 2/26/02)

1965 Mar 1, Gas explosion killed 28 in apartment complex at La Salle, Quebec, Canada.
(SC, 3/1/02)

1965 Mar 2, The movie version of Rodgers and Hammerstein’s musical “The Sound of Music,” starring Julie Andrews and Christopher Plummer, had its world premiere at New York’s Rivoli Theater. The musical, about the Trapp Family, was a hit on the Great White Way for 3-1/2 years and one of the most popular motion pictures of all time. It remains a classic even today. The movie brought instant stardom for Miss Andrews, who went on to star in other singing roles in the theatre, on television, in movies and as a popular recording artist.
(AP, 3/2/05)
1965 Mar 2, More than 150 U.S. and South Vietnamese planes bombed two bases in North Vietnam in the first of the "Rolling Thunder" raids.
(HN, 3/2/99)

1965 Mar 3, Temptations' "My Girl" reached #1.
(SC, 3/3/02)
1965 Mar 3, US performed a nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.
(SC, 3/3/02)
1965 Mar 3, USSR performed a nuclear test at Eastern Kazakhstan, Semipalitinsk, USSR.
(SC, 3/3/02)

1965 Mar 4, David Attenborough became the new controller of BBC2.
(SC, 3/4/02)

1965 Mar 6, "How to Succeed in Business" closed at 46th St NYC after 1415 performances.
(MC, 3/6/02)
1965 Mar 6, The U.S. announced that it would send 3,500 troops to Vietnam.
(HN, 3/6/98)

1965 Mar 7, A march by some 600 civil rights demonstrators was broken up in Selma, Ala., by state troopers and posse under Sheriff Jim Clark (d.2007). The Black community of Marion, Ala., marched to protest the earlier killing of a demonstrator by a state trooper. John Lewis, later US Representative, led the march and was hit in the head by a state trooper.
(AP, 3/7/98)(SFC, 3/8/99, p.A9)(SFC, 11/27/99, p.C3)(Econ, 6/16/07, p.99)

1965 Mar 8, The United States landed its 1st combat troops, about 3,500 Marines, in Danang, South Vietnam. More than 4,000 Marines landed in South Vietnam. They joined some 23,000 Americans who had been serving as military advisors to South Vietnam for several years. Gen. Frederick Karch (d.2009 at 92) landed with the 9th Marine Expeditionary Brigade on Red Beach at Da Nang. Prior to their arrival all military personnel in Vietnam were there as advisors.
(AP, 3/8/98)(HN, 3/8/98)(SFC, 8/18/00, p.D2)(SFC, 5/27/09, p.B9)

1965 Mar 10, Neil Simon's play "The Odd Couple," starring Walter Matthau as Oscar Madison and Art Carney as Felix Unger, opened on Broadway.
(AP, 3/10/99)

1965 Mar 11, "I Lost It at the Movies," a collection of film criticism by Pauline Kael, was first published by Little, Brown and Co.
(AP, 3/11/05)
1965 Mar 11, The American navy began inspecting Vietnamese junks in hopes of ending arms smuggling to South Vietnam.
(HN, 3/11/99)
1965 Mar 11, The Rev. James J. Reeb (65), a white minister from Boston, died after whites beat him during civil rights disturbances in Selma, Ala.
(AP, 3/11/98)

1965 Mar 12, The SF FBI sent bureau headquarters a secret 33-page report on Mario Savio, leader of the Berkeley Free Speech Movement.
(SFCM, 10/10/04, p.18)
1965 Mar 12, Edward "Teddy" Deegan was found dead in an alley in Chelsea, Mass. A week later an FBI memo named 6 men, including Vincent J. Flemmi and Joseph "The Animal" Barboza, as the killers. Barboza became a star witness and provided false testimony to convict 4 innocent men. The New England Mafia shotgunned Barboza in SF in 1976. Over the next 3 decades FBI informants in Boston murdered over 20 people.
(SSFC, 7/28/02, p.A5)(SFC, 11/21/03, p.A3)

1965 Mar 15, Addressing a joint session of Congress, President Johnson called for new legislation to guarantee every American's right to vote. His speech was written by Richard Goodwin. In 2007 Garth E. Pauley authored “LBJ’s American Promise: the 1965 Voting Rights Address.”
(AP, 3/15/97)(WSJ, 4/12/08, p.W8)(AH, 10/07, p.65)
1965 Mar 15, T.G.I. Friday's 1st restaurant opened in NYC.
(MC, 3/15/02)
1965 Mar 15, Gamal Abdel Nasser was re-elected Egyptian President.
(HN, 3/15/99)

1965 Mar 18, The first spacewalk took place as Soviet cosmonaut Aleksei Leonov (30) left his Voskhod 2 capsule and remained outside the spacecraft for 20 minutes, secured by a tether.
(SFC, 5/27/00, p.A26)(AP, 3/18/97)

1965 Mar 19, Indonesia nationalized all foreign oil companies.
(MC, 3/19/02)
1965 Mar 19, In Romania State Council Pres. Gheorghiu-Dej (b.1901) died. Gheorghe Apostol was defeated in a contest for Communist Party leader by Ceausescu, who ended up ruling Romania with an iron fist for 25 years.
(AP, 8/25/10)(

1965 Mar 20, Lyndon B. Johnson ordered 4,000 troops to protect the Selma-Montgomery civil rights marchers.
(HN, 3/20/98)

1965 Mar 21, Martin Luther King Jr. led more than 3,000 civil rights demonstrators on the 50-mile march to Montgomery from Selma.
(SFEC, 3/16/97, p.T1)(AP, 3/21/97)
1965 Mar 21, The U.S. launched Ranger 9, last in a series of lunar explorations.
(HN, 3/21/98)

1965 Mar 22, US confirmed its troops used chemical warfare against the Vietcong in South Vietnam.
(MC, 3/22/02)

1965 Mar 22, Columbia Records released Bob Dylan’s album "Bringing It All Back Home."
(SFC, 9/26/05, C3)
1965 Mar 23, America's first two-person space flight began as Gemini 3 blasted off from Cape Kennedy with astronauts Virgil I. Grissom and John W. Young aboard for a nearly five-hour flight. Young sneaked a corned beef sandwich on board, for which he was later reprimanded.
(AP, 3/23/08)
1965 Mar 23, Police in Casablanca, Morocco, cracked down on students and workers campaigning for social justice and about 100 were killed. In the 1970s the "March 23 movement" for social rights was named for this day.
(SFC, 4/13/01, p.A14)(SS, 3/23/02)

1965 Mar 24, The Univ. of Michigan held the 1st "Teach-in" on the Vietnam war.
1965 Mar 24, US Ranger 9 struck the Moon, 10 miles (16 km) NE of crater Alphonsus.
(MC, 3/24/02)
1965 Mar 24, Chivu Stoica (1908-1975), former Romanian prime minister (1955-1961), became President of the Council State of Romania.

1965 Mar 25, The opera "Lizzie Borden" premiered in NYC. It was composed by Jack Beeson with a libretto by Kenward Elmslie. The initial scenario was written by Richard Plant (d.1997 at 87).
(SFC, 3/17/98, p.A20)
1965 Mar 25, Martin Luther King Jr. led a group of 25,000 to the state capital in Montgomery Ala. to protest the denial of voting rights to blacks. Civil Rights pressures increased in the US and blacks and whites marched in Selma and Montgomery.
(TMC, 1994, p.1965)(AP, 3/25/97)(HN, 3/24/98)
1965 Mar 25, Viola Liuzzo (b.1925), a white civil rights worker from Detroit, was shot and killed by the Ku Klux Klan on a road near Selma, Ala. The later trial of Collie Leroy Jenkins, one of 3 men charged in the killing, ended in a hung jury. Jenkins was also acquitted at a 2nd trial but was later convicted along with Eugene Thomas of civil rights violations in federal court and sentenced to 10 years in prison.
(, 7/20/08, p.B6)
1965 Mar 25, West German Bondsdag extended war crimes retribution.
(MC, 3/25/02)

1965 Mar, In this issue of American Scientist Henry David Block showed how easy it was to build a computer that learns using just dixie cups and cardboard. Block called his computer G-1 (G is for Golem, the robot slave of Jewish legend). He used the game of Nim to illustrate his subject.
(NOHY, 3/90, p.204)

1965 Apr 1, King Hussein bin Talal of Jordanian appointed his younger brother, Prince Hassan bin Talal, as crown prince and heir to the Hashemite throne. This required a change to the Jordan constitution to allow for fraternal succession.
(MC, 4/1/02)
1965 Apr 1, Henry D.G. Crerar (b.1888), Canadian general and the country's "leading field commander" in World War II, died.
1965 Apr 1, Helena Rubinstein (89), US cosmetic manufacturer, died. In 2004 Lindy Woodhead authored “War Paint: Madame Helena Rubinstein & Miss Elizabeth Arden: Their Lives, Their times, Their Rivalry.”
(, 3/8/09, p.G1)

1965 Apr 2, Rodney King, black motorist brutally beaten by LA cops, was born in Sacramento, Calif.
(MC, 4/2/02)
1965 Apr 2, Rolf Hochhuth's play "The Deputy," which blamed Pope Pius XII for war crimes, was banned in Italy.
(MC, 4/2/02)

1965 Apr 5, In the 37th Academy Awards "My Fair Lady," Rex Harrison and Julie Andrews won.
(MC, 4/5/02)
1965 Apr 5, Lava Lamp Day was celebrated.
(MC, 4/5/02)
1965 Apr 5, The second Indo-Pakistani conflict began when fighting broke out in the Rann of Kachchh, a sparsely inhabited region along the West Pakistan-India border.
(, 2002)

1965 Apr 6, President Lyndon B. Johnson authorized the use of ground troops in combat operations.
(HN, 4/6/99)
1965 Apr 6, The United States launched the Intelsat I, also known as the "Early Bird" communications satellite.
(AP, 4/6/08)

1965 Apr 8, Erik A. Blomberg (70), Swedish art historian, poet, author, died.
(MC, 4/8/02)

1965 Apr 9, The newly built Houston Astrodome featured its first baseball game, an exhibition between the Astros and the New York Yankees. Mickey Mantle hit the 1st indoor homerun, but the Astros won, 2-1 in 12 innings.
(WSJ, 10/15/98, p.B8)(AP, 4/9/09)
1965 Apr 9, India and Pakistan engaged in a border fight.
(MC, 4/9/02)

1965 Apr 10, Linda Darnell (41), actress, died from burns received in a fire.
(MC, 4/10/02)

1965 Apr 11, The Elementary and Secondary Education Act became US law. It was passed as a part of the "War on Poverty" and has been the most far-reaching Federal legislation affecting education ever passed by Congress.
1965 Apr 11, A series of tornados left 256 people dead in the US Midwest.
(WSJ, 9/13/01, p.B11)

1965 Apr 13, Beatles recorded "Help."
(MC, 4/13/02)
1965 Apr 13, Lawrence Wallace Bradford Jr. (16) was appointed by New York Republican Jacob Javits to be the first black page of the US Senate.
(AP, 4/13/02)

1965 Apr 14, Perry E. Smith and Robert E. Hickok, US murderers, were hanged. Their 1959 murder of a Kansas farm family was described by Truman Capote (1924-1984) in his 1965 book: “In Cold Blood”
(, 5/19/07, p.P8)

1965 Apr 17, Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) held its 1st anti-Vietnam war protest rally in Washington DC. Daniel Ellsburg helped Patricia Marx tape the event for public radio.
(SSFC, 10/20/02, p.M1)
1965 Apr 17, A stretch of the Mississippi River near Minneapolis crested at a record high. Flooding caused $100 million in damages and left 12 people dead.
(SFC, 4/17/09, p.D8)

1965 Apr 19, An article in Electronics magazine by Gordon Moore, later Intel Chairman, noted that chips seem to double in power every 18 months. Thus was born Moore's Law. Moore later asserted that his claim was that the number of components that can be packed on a computer chip doubles every 2 years. In 2005 Intel offered $10,000 for a pristine copy of the magazine.
(SFEC, 12/21/97, p.A2)(SFC, 10/11/00, p.A6)(SFC, 4/12/05, p.A1)(SFC, 4/18/05, p.E1)
1965 Apr 19, At a cost of $20,000, the outer Houston Astrodome ceiling was painted because of sun's glare. This in turn caused the grass to die.
(MC, 4/19/02)

1965 Apr 21, New York World's Fair reopened for a 2nd and final season.
(MC, 4/21/02)

1965 Apr 24, Che Guevara, his second-in-command Victor Dreke, and twelve of the Cuban expeditionaries arrived in the Congo. Guevara, Cuba’s head of the national bank and minister of industry, left Cuba to foment revolution in the Congo. He spent most of 1965 and 1966 in Central Africa, helping anti-Mobuto revolutionaries in the Republic of Congo. This turned out to be a disaster and he went to Bolivia.

1965 Apr 27, RC Duncan patented "Pampers," a disposable diaper.
(MC, 4/27/02)
1965 Apr 27, Edward R. Murrow (b.1908), newscaster (Person to Person), died of cancer in Pawling, N.Y. He had filed radio broadcast from London during the WW II German air raids. In 1986 A.M. Sperber authored “Murrow: His Life and Times.”
(AP, 4/27/05)(SFC, 2/10/06, p.E11)(WSJ, 12/1/07, p.W10)

1965 Apr 28, Barbra Streisand starred on "My Name is Barbra" special on CBS.
(MC, 4/28/02)
1965 Apr 28, U.S. Army and Marines under US Pres. Lyndon Johnson invaded the Dominican Republic to stop a civil war. Johnson sent 22,800 troops at the urging of Thomas Mann (d.1999 at 87), a high state department official. The troops stayed until stay until Oct 1966.
(SFC, 5/17/96, p.A-14)(HN, 4/28/98)(MC, 4/28/02)

1965 Apr 29, Seattle experienced an earthquake. 7 people were killed and damage was estimated at $12.5 million.
1965 Apr 29, Australian government announced it would send troops to Vietnam.
(MC, 4/29/02)

1965 May 1, Spike Jones (53), composer (Spike Jones Show), died.
(MC, 5/1/02)
1965 May 1, In Czechoslovakia Allen Ginsberg was crowned King of May at the Prague May Day celebration.
(SFEC, 4/6/97, p.A10)
1965 May 1, USSR launched Luna 5; later lands on Moon.
(MC, 5/1/02)

1965 May 2, Intelsat 1, also known as the Early Bird satellite, was used to transmit television pictures across the Atlantic.
(AP, 5/2/08)

1965 May 4, Willie Mays hit his 512th HR and broke Mel Ott's 511 NL record.
(MC, 5/4/02)

1965 May 5, 1st large-scale US Army ground units arrived in South Vietnam.
(MC, 5/5/02)

1965 May 10, Warren Buffett of Omaha, Nebraska, took control of Berkshire-Hathaway. The textile company closed at $18 per share. In 2006 shares of Berkshire-Hathaway passed $100,000 per share.
(WSJ, 10/24/06, p.C1)

1965 May 11, The US 10th fighter Bomber F105D was shot down at Xien Khouong, Laos.
(SSFC, 11/9/03, p.D6)
1965 May 11-12, In East Pakistan a cyclone killed some 12,000.

1965 May 12, West Germany and Israel exchanged letters establishing diplomatic relations.
(AP, 5/12/97)

1965 May 13, Rolling Stones recorded "Satisfaction,"
(SS, Internet, 5/13/97)
1965 May 13, Several Arab nations broke ties with West Germany after it established diplomatic relations with Israel.
(MC, 5/13/02)

1965 May 14, An acre at the field at Runnymede, the site of the signing of the Magna Carta, was dedicated by Queen Elizabeth as a memorial to the late John F. Kennedy, US President.
1965 May 14, Frances Perkins (83), the first US female cabinet secretary, died. She served as FDR’s Minister of Labor (1933-45). In 2009 Kirstin Downey authored “The Woman Behind the New Deal: The Life of Francis Perkins, FDR’s Secretary of Labor and His Moral Conscience.”
(Econ, 7/25/09, p.80)(

1965 May 16, Spaghetti-O's were 1st sold.
(MC, 5/16/02)

1965 May 18, President Lyndon B. Johnson officially announced the Head Start program in the White House Rose Garden. The program was soon launched with Dr. Julius Richmond (1916-2008), former US surgeon general under pres. Carter, as the first director.
1965 May 18, Gene Roddenberry suggested 16 names including Kirk for Star Trek Captain.
(SC, 5/18/02)
1965 May 18, Eduard J. Dijksterhuis (72), mathematician (Archimedes), died.
(SC, 5/18/02)
1965 May 18, Eli Cohen, who arrived in Syria in 1962, was hanged in a public square in Damascus for spying for Israel until his capture. As businessman Kamal Amin Thabit he worked his way into the upper echelons of Syrian government and society, feeding Israel with valuable political and military intelligence.
(AP, 5/30/10)

1965 May 22, "Super-cali-fragil-istic-expi-ali-docious" hit #66.
(MC, 5/22/02)
1965 May 22, Heinrich Barth, Swiss philosopher (Das Sein in der Zeit), died.
(MC, 5/22/02)

1965 May 23, David Smith (b.1906), American sculptor, died in Albany NY. His farm in upstate New York was named the Terminal Iron Works. His work included "Circle and Box," "XI Books, III Apples," "Lunar Arc," "Becca" and "Rebecca Circle."

1965 May 24, Supreme Court declared a federal law allowing the post office to intercept communist propaganda as unconstitutional.
(MC, 5/24/02)

1965 May 25, Mark Knight, rock guitarist (Bang Tango-Dancin' on Coals), was born in California.
(SC, 5/25/02)
1965 May 25, Remco Prins, Dutch rock guitarist/vocalist (Burma Shave-Stash), was born.
(SC, 5/25/02)
1965 May 25, Roef-Ragas, Dutch actor (Missing Link, Red Rain, Juju, Mykosch), was born.
(SC, 5/25/02)
1965 May 25, Muhammad Ali KO’d Sonny Liston in 1st round for heavyweight boxing title.
(SC, 5/25/02)
1965 May 25, Sonny Boy Williamson [Aleck Miller], blues player, died.
(SC, 5/25/02)
1965 May 25, India and Pakistan engaged in border fights.
(SC, 5/25/02)

1965 May 30, Vivian Malone (later Vivian Malone Jones) became the first black graduate of the University of Alabama with a degree in Business Management.
(NYT, 10/14/2005, p.C15)
1965 May 30, Viet Cong offensive began against US base at Da Nang, South Vietnam.
(MC, 5/30/02)

1965 Jun 1, A. Penzias and R. Wilson detected a 3 degree (Kelvin) microwave primordial background radiation.
(V.D.-H.K.p.335)(DTnet, 6/1/97)
1965 Jun 1, Near Fukuoka, Japan, a coal mine explosion killed 236.
(DTnet, 6/1/97)

1965 Jun 1-1965 Jun 2, The 2nd of 2 cyclones in less than a month killed 35,000 along the Ganges River in East Pakistan.

1965 Jun 3, Astronaut Edward White became the first American to "walk" in space, during the flight of Gemini 4.
(AP, 6/3/97)

1965 Jun 7, Gemini 4 completed 62 orbits.
(SC, 6/7/02)
1965 Jun 7, Judy Holiday (42), actress, died.
(SC, 6/7/02)

1965 Jun 8, President Lyndon B. Johnson authorized commanders in Vietnam to commit U.S. ground forces to combat.
(HN, 6/8/98)

1965 Jun 12, Big Bang theory of creation of universe was supported by announcement of discovery of new celestial bodied know as blue galaxies.
(MC, 6/12/02)

1965 Jun 14, A military triumvirate took control in Saigon, South Vietnam.
(HN, 6/14/98)

1965 Jun 17, Twenty-seven B-52’s hit Viet Cong outposts but lost two planes in South Vietnam.
(HN, 6/17/98)

1965 Jun 19, R.C., "I Can't Help Myself" by Four Tops peaked at #1 on the pop singles chart.
(DTnet, 6/19/97)
1965 Jun 19, Air Marshall Nguyen Cao Ky became South Vietnam’s youngest premier at age 34.
(HN, 6/19/98)
1965 Jun 19, Col. Houari Boumedienne (1932-1978) overthrew Pres. Ahmed Ben Bella, Algeria's first civilian president. Abdelaziz Bouteflika was Boumedienne's right-hand man.
(SFEC, 4/18/99, p.A22)(

1965 Jun 21, Bernard M. Baruch (94), US presidential advisor, died.
(MC, 6/21/02)

1965 Jun 22, David O. Selznick, producer, died at 63. His films included "Gone With the Wind." In 1992 David Thomson authored "Showman: The Life of David O. Selznick." In 1972 his collected memos were edited by Rudy Behlmer and published as “Memo From David O. Selznick.”
(YarraNet, 6/22/00)(SFCM, 3/29/02, p.41)(WSJ, 1/7/07, p.P8)

1965 Jun 26, "Mr. Tambourine Man" by The Byrds reached the number one spot on the pop music charts.
(SFC, 9/26/06, p.D7)

1965 Jul 3, Trigger (25), the golden palomino horse of Roy Rogers, died. Trigger was mounted by Bishoff's Taxidermy of California and were on display for years at the Roy Rogers and Dale Evans Museum in Victorville, California. The original Trigger is currently on display at The Roy Rogers - Dale Evans Museum in Branson, Missouri. In 2010 Trigger, along with his saddle, took top dollar at an auction of memorabilia.
(, 7/7/98, p.A2)(

1965 Jul 5, Porfirio Rubirosa (b.1909), Dominican Republic playboy and husband to French actress Odile Rodin, died in a car crash in Paris. His 5 wives included Woolworth heiress Barbara Hutton. In 2005 Shawn Levy authored “The Last Playboy: The High Life of Porfirio Rubirosa.”
(, 10/16/05, p.M3)

1965 Jul 9, Adelaide Hiebel (b.1879), American artist, died. Many of her paintings were used for advertising and calendar prints.

1965 Jul 14, The American space probe Mariner 4 flew by Mars and sent back 22 photographs of the planet. These were the 1st images of Mars taken from a spacecraft.
(AP, 7/14/97)(SFC, 12/8/99, p.A19)
1965 Jul 14, U.S. Ambassador Adlai E. Stevenson Jr., the Democratic presidential nominee in 1952 and 1956, died in London at age 65. Jean Baker in 1996 published a 1996 biography of the Stevenson family.
(AP, 7/14/97)(SFEC, 6/6/99, p.A19,21)

1965 Jul 15, US scientists displayed close-up photographs of the planet Mars taken by "Mariner Four." It passed over Mars at an altitude of 6,000 feet.
(AP, 7/15/00)

1965 Jul 16, Mount Blanc Road tunnel between France & Italy opened.
(MC, 7/16/02)

1965 Jul 19, Syngman Rhee (90), president of South-Korea (1948-60), died.
(MC, 7/19/02)

1965 Jul 24, The Mauna Kea Beach Hotel on the Big Island of Hawaii opened.
(WSJ, 9/18/96, Ad. Supl. p.16)

1965 Jul 25, Folk-rock began when Dylan used electricity at the Newport Folk Festival, RI.
(SC, 7/25/02)

1965 Jul 26, Republic of Maldives gained independence from Britain.

1965 Jul 27, Pres. Johnson signed a bill requiring cigarette makers to print health warnings on all cigarette packages about the effects of smoking.
(MC, 7/27/02)

1965 Jul 28, President Johnson announced he was increasing the number of American troops in South Vietnam to 175,000 "almost immediately."
(HN, 7/28/98)(AP, 7/28/08)

1965 Jul 29, Beatles movie "Help" premiered and Queen Elizabeth attended.
(MC, 7/29/02)

1965 Jul 30, President Johnson signed into law the Medicare bill, which went into effect the following year. John W. Gardner (d.2002), a member of Johnson’s cabinet, was responsible for starting Medicare. A statute required coverage of items that were reasonable and necessary.
(AP, 7/30/97)(SFC, 2/18/02, p.A6)(WSJ, 7/16/03, p.A1)

1965 Jul 31, J. K. Rawling, British writer, was born in Yate, Gloucestershire. She became famous for her Harry Potter fantasy series.

1965 Jul, Bill Moyers replaced George E. Reedy as press secretary to Pres. Johnson.
(SFC, 3/22/99, p.A22)

1965 Aug 2, Newsman Morley Safer filmed the destruction of the Vietnamese village of Cam Ne by US Marines. Safer sent the 1st Vietnam report indicating we are losing. Safer’s report was broadcast by CBS on August 5 and led Pres. Johnson to call CBS demanding that Safer be fired. CBS president Frank Stanton refused to fire Safer.
(HN, 8/2/98)(WSJ, 12/30/06, p.A8)

1965 Aug 6, The Voting Rights Act of 1965 was passed and signed by President Johnson. It outlawed the literacy test for voting eligibility in the South. It was later used to justify drawing some congressional districts that would make the architects of South Africa's apartheid blush. In 1995 Roberts and Stratton authored "The New Color Line: How Quotas and Privilege Destroy Democracy."
(WSJ, 10/26/95, p.A-20)(HFA, '96, p.36)(AP, 8/6/97)(HN, 8/6/98)
1965 Aug 6, Indian troops invaded Pakistan. Indo-Pakistani fighting spread to Kashmir and to the Punjab, The 2nd Indo-Pakistani conflict started without a formal declaration of war. Skirmishes with Indian forces started as early as August 6 or 7.
(, 8/6/02)

1965 Aug 9, Singapore proclaimed its independence from the Malaysian Federation. Singapore became independent from Britain and was booted from the Malayan federation. Lee Kuan Yew became the new prime minister.
(AP,8/9/97)(WSJ,6/11/96,p.A9A)(SFC,6/8/96,p.A11)(WSJ,12/31/96, p.1)

1965 Aug 11, Beatles movie "Help" opened in NYC.
(MC, 8/11/02)
1965 Aug 11, Rioting and looting broke out in the predominantly black Watts section of Los Angeles. A small clash between the California Highway Patrol and two black youths sets off six days of rioting in the Watts area of Los Angeles.
(AP, 8/11/97)(SFEC, 5/23/99, Z1 p.4)(HN, 8/11/00)(MC, 8/11/02)

1965 Aug 12, There was a race riot in West Side of Chicago.
(SC, 8/12/02)

1965 Aug 13, In SF the Jefferson Airplane made its first public performance opening at the new Matrix club on Fillmore. The band held an ownership interest in the club.
(SFEC, 5/23/99, Z1 p.4)(SFC, 11/17/08, p.E4)

1965 Aug 14, The Beatles taped an appearance for the Ed Sullivan Show.
(MC, 8/14/02)
1965 Aug 14, Sonny and Cher's "I Got You Babe" hit #1.
(MC, 8/14/02)
1965 Aug 14, The first major engagement between the regular armed forces of India and Pakistan took place. The next day, Indian forces scored a major victory after a prolonged artillery barrage and captured three important mountain positions in the northern sector. Later in the month, the Pakistanis counterattacked, moving concentrations near Tithwal, Uri, and Punch. Their move, in turn, provoked a powerful Indian thrust into Azad Kashmir. Other Indian forces captured a number of strategic mountain positions and eventually took the key Haji Pir Pass, eight kilometers inside Pakistani territory.
(, 2002)(

1965 Aug 15, Beatles played to 55,000 at Shea Stadium.
(MC, 8/15/02)

1965 Aug 16, The Watts riots ended in south-central LA after six days with the help of 20,000 National Guardsmen; the riots left 34 dead, 857 injured, over 2,200 arrested, and property valued at $200 million destroyed. The riots started when police on August 11th brutally beat a black motorist suspected of drunken driving in Watts area of LA.
(HN, 8/16/00)(MC, 8/16/02)

1965 Aug 17, Glen Goldsmith, rocker (What You See is What You Get), was born.
(SC, 8/17/02)

1965 Aug 18, Operation Starlite marked the beginning of major U.S. ground combat operations in Vietnam.
(HN, 8/18/98)

1965 Aug 19, U.S. forces destroyed a Viet Cong stronghold near Van Tuong, in South Vietnam.
(HN, 8/19/98)
1965 Aug 19, The Auschwitz trials ended with only 6 life sentences.
(MC, 8/19/02)

1965 Aug 21, Gemini 5 was launched into Earth orbit atop Titan V with Cooper and Conrad.
(SFC, 7/9/99, p.A6)

1965 Aug 27, Bob Dylan was booed off stage in NY's Forest Hills.
(MC, 8/27/01)
1965 Aug 27-1965 Sep 13, Hurricane Betsy killed 75 in Louisiana & Florida. Betsy left New Orleans under 7 feet of water.
(, 8/31/05, p.B1)
1965 Aug 27, Le Corbusier (b.1887), Swiss-French architect and writer, died. He was born as Charles Edouard Jeanneret-Gris in La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland. His book included books include “Vers une architecture” (Towards a New Architecture) (1923), “The City of Tomorrow” (1925), and “When the Cathedrals Were White” (1937).

1965 Aug 28, Bob Dylan was scorned at a concert in NY's Forest Hills.
1965 Aug 28, The Viet Cong were routed in the Mekong Delta by U.S. forces, with more than 50 killed.
(HN, 8/28/98)

1965 Aug 29, Gemini 5, carrying astronauts Gordon Cooper and Charles ("Pete") Conrad, splashed down in the Atlantic after eight days in space.
(AP, 8/29/97)

1965 Aug 30, Columbia Records released Bob Dylan’s album "Highway 61 Revisited."
(SFC, 9/26/05, C3)(

1965 Aug 31, The US House of Reps joined Senate to establish Dept of Housing & Urban Develop.
(MC, 8/31/01)

1965 Sep 1-19, Indian gains led to a major Pakistani counterattack in the southern sector, in Punjab, where Indian forces were caught unprepared and suffered heavy losses. The sheer strength of the Pakistani thrust, which was spearheaded by seventy tanks and two infantry brigades, led Indian commanders to call in air support. Pakistan retaliated on September 2 with its own air strikes in both Kashmir and Punjab.
(WSJ, 6/11/96, p.A12)(SFEC, 8/3/97, p.A15)(HN, 9/6/98)(SFC, 6/8/02, p.A20)(MC, 9/1/02)(, 2002)

1965 Sep 2, The Treblinka trial in Dusseldorf ended.
(MC, 9/2/01)

1965 Sep 3, Preparing a move to Anaheim, the LA Angels baseball team change their name to California Angels.
(MC, 9/3/01)

1965 Sep 4, Philosopher, musician, doctor, theologian and humanitarian Albert Schweitzer died. Born near Alsace, Germany, in 1875, Schweitzer decided to devote himself to providing health care to people in Africa at the age of 30. Schweitzer and his wife Hélène moved to Gabon in 1913 and opened a hospital in Lambaréné, which he later expanded with money from the Nobel Peace Prize he was awarded in 1952. Schweitzer also spoke out against the dangers of nuclear weapons, became an organist and expert on Johann Sebastian Bach, and served as a church pastor and university professor. He lived by the principle of "reverence for life."
(HNPD, 9/4/98)

1965 Sep 6, India and Pakistan began a second war over Kashmir. Pakistan paratroopers raided Punjab. It ended in a cease-fire that left India with control of two-thirds of Kashmir.
(WSJ, 6/11/96, p.A12)(SFEC, 8/3/97, p.A15)(HN, 9/6/98)(SFC, 6/8/02, p.A20)

1965 Sep 8, An AFL-CIO affiliated Agricultural Workers Organizing Committee (AWOC), a union of mostly Filipino workers, voted to go on strike in Delano, Ca. They were joined after eleven days by Cesar Chavez and the National Farm Workers Assoc. In 1967 John Gregory Dunne (1932-2003) authored "Delano," an account of the California grape strike.
(SFEC,10/19/97, p.C3)(SFC, 1/1/04, p.A23)
1965 Sep 8, Dorothy Danridge, actress (Island in the Sun), died at 41 in Hollywood.
(MC, 9/8/01)

1965 Sep 9, Sandy Koufax, baseball’s Great Jewish Hope, pitched a perfect game. It was the first perfect game thrown by a left-hander since 1880. In 2002 Jane Leavy authored "Sandy Koufax: A Lefty’s Legacy."
(WSJ, 10/22/02, p.A1)(
1965 Sep 9, US Navy pilot James Stockdale (d.2005) was shot down in Vietnam. He was beaten, tortured and taken to Hoa Lo prison (Hanoi Hilton) and released in 1973. In 1992 he ran as VP candidate with Ross Perot.
(SFC, 7/6/05, p.B7)
1965 Sep 9, Francois Mitterrand was nominated for French presidency.
(MC, 9/9/01)
1965 Sep 9, French President Charles de Gaulle announced that France was withdrawing from the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), in protest of U.S. domination in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.
(MC, 9/9/01)

1965 Sep 11, The US 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile), arrived in South Vietnam and was stationed at An Khe.
(HN, 9/11/98)

1965 Sep 14, The situation comedy "My Mother the Car" premiered on NBC-TV.
(AP, 9/14/05)
1965 Sep 14, The TV show "F-Troop" premiered. It ended in 1967 after 65 episodes.
1965 Sep 14, Dmitry Medvedev was born in Leningrad. In 2008 with the backing of Vladimir Putin, he became prime minister of Russia.
(WSJ, 2/28/08, p.A14)
1965 Sep 14, The 4th meeting of 2nd Vatican council opened.
1965 Sep 14, Vasily Grossman (b.1964, Soviet writer, died in Moscow. In 1961 his novel “Life and Fate,” a book about Nazis and Soviets at war, was confiscated. A copy was smuggled to the US and published in English 1985. In 2011 the BBC dramatized the book on Radio 4.
(Econ, 9/10/11, p.98)(

1965 Sep 15, The TV show “I Spy” premiered. Bill Cosby and Roger Culp (1930-2010) starred in the series which ran for 82 episodes until 1968.
(SFEC, 1/12/97, p.C10)(SFEC, 5/24/98, DB p.39)(
1965 Sep 15, The TV show "Lost in Space," with its Space Family Robinson and robot premiered on CBS. It was set in the year 1997 and cancelled in 1968. The CBS TV show featured Guy Williams, June Lockhart, Billy Mumy and Jonathon Harris (d.2002 at 87).
(SFC, 8/27/96, p.B2)(AP, 9/15/97)(SFEC, 1/3/99, DB p.28)(SFC, 11/6/02, p.A34)

1965 Sep 16, "The Dean Martin Show" premiered on NBC.
(AP, 9/16/05)

1965 Sep 17, "The Smothers Brothers Show", debuted on CBS TV.
(MC, 9/17/01)

1965 Sep 18, The NBC situation comedies "I Dream of Jeannie" and "Get Smart" premiered.
(AP, 9/18/05)

1965 Sep 20, Seven U.S. planes were downed in one day over Vietnam.
(HN, 9/20/98)
1965 Sep 20, The India-Pakistani war was at the point of stalemate when the UN Security Council unanimously passed a resolution that called for a cease-fire. New Delhi accepted the cease-fire resolution on September 21 and Islamabad on September 22, and the war ended on September 23. The Indian side lost 3,000 while the Pakistani side suffered 3,800 battlefield deaths.

1965 Sep 22, Pres. Johnson designated Columbus Day a federal public holiday to be celebrated on Oct. 12. In 1968 He moved it to the 2nd Monday of October. In 2004 Pres. Bush set it to Oct 11.
1965 Sep 22, Pakistan agreed to the UN brokered cease-fire that India affirmed the day before. [see Jan 10, 1966]
(HNQ, 4/26/99)

1965 Sep 25, 60 year old Satchel Paige of the Kansas City A's pitched 3 scoreless innings.
(MC, 9/25/01)

1965 Sep 26, Queen Elizabeth decorated the Beatles with the Order of the British Empire.
(MC, 9/26/01)

1965 Sep 28, A volcano exploded on Luzon, Philippines; 500 killed.
(MC, 9/28/01)

1965 Sep 30, President Lyndon Johnson signed legislation that established the National Foundation for the Arts and the Humanities.
(HN, 9/30/98)
1965 Sep 30, In Indonesia procommunist military officers, calling themselves the September 30 Movement (Gestapu), attempted to seize power.

1965 Sep, The SF Chronicle and the SF Examiner began a joint operating agreement for printing and distribution.
(SFC, 8/7/99, p.A1)(SSFC, 6/7/09, p.W3)

1965 Oct 1, In Indonesia a small force of junior military officers abducted and killed six generals in the early morning hours and seized several key points in the capital city of Jakarta. Gen. Suharto crushed the coup and soon seized power from Pres. Sukarno.

1965 Oct 4, Pope Paul VI became the first reigning pontiff to visit the Western Hemisphere as he addressed the U.N. General Assembly.
(AP, 10/4/97)

1965 Oct 5, U.S. forces in Saigon, South Vietnam, received permission to use tear gas.
(HN, 10/5/98)

1965 Oct 6, Patricia Harris took post as U.S. Ambassador to Belgium, becoming the first African-American U.S. ambassador.
(HN, 10/6/98)

1965 Oct 8, London's Post Office Tower opened as the tallest building in England.
(MC, 10/8/01)

1965 Oct 9, Beatles' "Yesterday," single went #1 and stays #1 for 4 weeks.
(MC, 10/9/01)

1965 Oct 10, Ronald Reagan spoke at Coalinga Junior College and called for an official declaration of war in Vietnam.
(SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F5)
1965 Oct 10, The "Vinland Map" was introduced by Yale University as being the 1st known map of America, drawn about 1440 by Norse explorer Lief Eriksson.
(MC, 10/10/01)

1965 Oct 11, Dorothy Lange (b.1895), American photographer, died in San Francisco. She is best known for her Depression-era work for the Farm Security Administration (FSA). In 2009 Linda Gordon authored “Dorothy Lange: A Life Beyond Limits.”
(SSFC, 11/8/09, p.E1)(

1965 Oct 16, The world’s first acid rock dance was held at Longshoreman’s Hall. Top band on the bill was the Charlatan’s with Dan Hicks, a house band from the Red Dog Saloon in Virginia City. The Jefferson Airplane also made its first concert appearance. Alton Kelley (1940-2008) and 3 other people, under the name Family Dog, staged the dance concert.
(, 6/3/08, p.B5)

1965 Oct 17, The musical "On A Clear Day You Can See Forever," with a score by Burton Lane and book and lyrics by Alan Jay Lerner, opened on Broadway.
(AP, 10/17/05)

1965 Oct 20, Beatles received a gold record for "Yesterday."
(MC, 10/20/01)
1965 Oct 21, Robert B. Woodward was awarded the Nobel prize for chemistry, "for his outstanding achievements in the art of organic synthesis."
1965 Oct 20, Mass arrests of communists took place in Indonesia. Some 500,000 Chinese Indonesians were killed in anti-Communist riots in this year. Laws restricting Chinese culture were later established, reportedly to promote assimilation and protect Chinese Indonesians. [see 1966] The laws included a ban on publicly celebrating the Chinese New Year. An estimated 300,000 Communists were massacred by the army in immediate and later reprisals in Indonesia after an attempted overthrow of the government in 1965.
(SFEC, 2/1/98, p.A23)(SFC, 2/5/98, p.A14)(HNQ, 5/21/98)(MC, 10/20/01)

1965 Oct 21, The Orlando Sentinel announced that Disney is coming to Orlando, Florida. Disney World property, 27,000 acres, was purchased by Disney for $5 million.
(Hem, Mar. 95, p.28)

1965 Oct 22, Paul Tillich, German-US Theologian (Courage To Be), died.
(MC, 10/22/01)

1965 Oct 26, Beatles received MBEs at Buckingham Palace.
(MC, 10/26/01)

1965 Oct 28, The Gateway Arch (630' (190m) high), designed by Eero Saarinen, was completed in St Louis, Missouri.
1965 Oct 28, Pope Paul VI issued a decree, Nostra Aetate, absolving Jews of collective guilt for the crucifixion of Jesus Christ.
(AP, 10/28/99)(SFC, 3/11/06, p.B10)

1965 Oct 29, Mehdi Ben Barka (b.1920), a leading opposition figure to Morocco’s King Hassan II (d.1999), disappeared in front of the famous Left Bank Lipp Cafe. His body has never been found.
(, 10/11/09)

1965 Oct 30, A fireworks explosions killed 50 in Cartagena, Colombia.
(MC, 10/30/01)

1965 Oct, In Britain child serial killers Myra Hindley (d.2002) and her boyfriend, Ian Brady (the Moors Murderers), were caught. [see 1966]
(AP, 11/16/02)

1965 Nov 1, In Cairo, Egypt, a trackless trolley plunged into Nile River drowning 74.
(MC, 11/1/01)

1965 Nov 6, Edgar Varese (b.1883), French-born pioneer of musical modernism, died. He moved to the US in 1915. Varese was the inventor of the term "organized sound", a phrase meaning that certain timbres and rhythms can be grouped together, sublimating into a whole new definition of music.
(SFC, 4/16/10, p.F6)(

1965 Nov 7, Friedrich Wildgans (52), composer, died.
(MC, 11/7/01)

1965 Nov 8, The American television soap opera “Days of Our Lives” premiered with Frances Reid (1914-2010) as Alice Horton. Reid spent over 40 years playing Alice Horton on the daytime soap.
(, 11/8/05)
1965 Nov 8, The US Higher Education Act became law. It was intended to strengthen the educational resources of US colleges and universities and to provide financial assistance to students in postsecondary and higher education. The student loan system was part of Lyndon Johnson’s Great Society program.
(, 8/4/07, p.28)

1965 Nov 9, A major power failure hit the East Coast of the US. New York City experienced a major blackout just after 5:30 PM. In the great Northeast blackout several US states and parts of Canada were hit by a series of power failures lasting up to 13 1/2 hours. Nine Northeastern states and parts of Canada went dark in the worst power failure in history, when a switch at a station near Niagara Falls failed.
(HFA, '96,p.42)(SFE,10/1/95, Z1, p.10)(AP, 11/9/97)(HN, 11/9/98)
1965 Nov 9, Roger Allen LaPorte a 22 year old former seminarian and a member of the Catholic worker movement, immolated himself at the United Nations in New York City in protest of the Vietnam War.
(HN, 11/9/98)

1965 Nov 11, Rhodesia (later Zimbabwe) under PM Ian D. Smith (d.2007) proclaimed its independence from Britain.
(AP, 11/11/97)(SFC, 11/23/07, p.B14)

1965 Nov 12, Ferdinand Marcos was elected president of Philippines.
(MC, 11/12/01)

1965 Nov 13, Director Kenneth Tynan said "Fuck" on BBC.
(MC, 11/13/01)
1965 Nov 13, The ship "Yarmouth Castle" burned and sank off Bahamas, killing 89.
(MC, 11/13/01)

1965 Nov 14, US government sent 90,000 soldiers to Vietnam.
(MC, 11/14/01)
1965 Nov 14, Bruce Crandall (32) flew through a gantlet of enemy fire, taking ammunition in and wounded Americans out of the Battle at Ia Drang Valley, one of the fiercest battles of the Vietnam War. Crandall's actions were depicted in the Hollywood movie "We Were Soldiers," adapted from the book "We Were Soldiers Once ... And Young." In 2007 he was awarded a Medal of Honor.
(AP, 2/26/07)

1965 Nov 15, In the second day of combat, regiments of the 1st Cavalry Division battle on Landing Zones X-Ray against North Vietnamese forces in the Ia Drang Valley, South Vietnam.
(WSJ, 10/5/98, p.A21)(HN, 11/15/99)

1965 Nov 16, Walt Disney launched Epcot Center: Prototype Community of Tomorrow in Florida. Epcot opened in 1982.
(MC, 11/16/01)
1965 Nov 16, In the last day of the fighting at Landing Zone X-Ray, regiments of the U.S. 1st Cavalry Division repulsed NVA forces in the Ia Drang Valley. Joe Galloway served at LZ X-ray. He later received the Bronze Star for his actions during the epic battle. Based on that and his subsequent actions in Vietnam, Galloway came to be regarded by the military leadership and the GIs alike as a journalist who was fair, objective, and who could be trusted to get the story right. He co-authored with Lt. Gen. Hal More "We Were Soldiers Once...Any Young."
(HN, 11/16/99)(HNQ, 10/2/02)

1965 Nov 17, The NVA ambushed American troops of the 7th Cavalry at Landing Zone Albany in the Ia Drang Valley, almost wiping them out. Some 500 US troops from Landing Zone X-Ray encountered some 500 North Vietnamese troops at L-Z Albany and more soldiers were killed than in the previous 3 days of fighting. Among the wounded was Jack Smith (d.2004), son of TV commentator Howard K. Smith. Jack Smith went on to become an ABC New correspondent.
(HN, 11/17/00)(SSFC, 4/18/04, p.E1)
1965 Nov 17, General Meeting of UN refused admittance of China.
(MC, 11/17/01)

1965 Nov 18, Henry A. Wallace (77), VP (1941-45) and founder (Progressive Party), died.
(MC, 11/18/01)

1965 Nov 20, UN Security council called for a boycott of Rhodesia (later Zimbabwe).
(MC, 11/20/01)

1965 Nov 22, The musical "Man of La Mancha" opened in New York City. Joe Darion (d.2001 at 90) wrote the lyrics for "The Impossible Dream" and Mitch Leigh wrote the score.
(AP, 11/22/97)(SFC, 6/22/01, p.D4)

1965 Nov 24, Congo had a military coup under Gen. Mobutu and Pres. Kasavubu was overthrown. Larry Devlin, US CIA station chief, had encouraged Mobutu to launch the coup. In 2007 Devlin authored “Chief of Station, Congo: Fighting the Cold War in a Hot Zone.”
(, 2/24/07, p.95)

1965 Nov 26, Arlo Guthrie (17) was arrested in Stockbridge, Mass., for dumping some trash following a Thanksgiving feast at a restaurant run by Alice Brock. He wrote a song about the event that became a folk classic and was turned into a movie in 1969.
(WSJ, 11/22/06, p.A1)
1965 Nov 26, France launched its first satellite, sending a 92-pound capsule into orbit.
(AP, 11/26/97)

1965 Nov 27, 15-25,000 demonstrated in Wash DC against the war in Vietnam.
(MC, 11/27/01)

1965 Nov, John Lindsay was elected mayor of NYC. In 2001 Vincent J. Cannato authored "The Ungovernable City," a look at Lindsay’s 8 years as mayor.
(WSJ, 7/5/01, p.A10)
1965 Nov, The 1st major American battle of the Vietnam war using armored vehicles was at Ap Bau Bang. The 1st Infantry Division engaged in its first major battle near the village of Ap Bau Bang, along National Route 13--known as "Thunder Road." General William E. DePuy later called it "one of the most gallant stands of the Vietnam War."
(HNQ, 8/2/02)
1965 Nov, In California the Marin County Board of Supervisors approved a development project for a new community of 20,000 people located in the hills around the Golden Gate. Lawyers filed suit and the Marincello project was put on hold. In 1972 the Nature Conservancy got an option on the property and the development project ended.
(SSFC, 10/24/10, p.A2)
1965 Nov, British-born Rick Rescorla served as a 2nd Lieutenant in the 2nd Battalion, 7th Cavalry when they made their fateful air assault into LZ Albany in the Ia Drang Valley. He features prominently in Hal Moore’s and Joe Gallway’s acclaimed book, "We Were Soldiers Once…And Young." He later helped save thousands of people and died a hero’s death at the World Trade Towers on September 11, 2001. As the security director for a major American corporation, Rescorla was a hero of both attacks on the World Trade Center. On 9-11 he managed to get all but a few of his company’s thousands of employees out of the tower. He was last seen heading back into the building with FDNY rescue crews when it collapsed.
(HNQ, 6/10/02)
1965 Nov, The British Indian Ocean Territory (Biot) was created by detaching the Chagos island group from Mauritius and other small islands from the Seychelles, then both British colonies. Mauritius was given £3m in compensation; the following year, Britain signed a military agreement with the US leasing it the largest island, Diego Garcia, for 50 years.
1965 Nov, Yao Wenyuan (1931-2005), one of China’s Gang of Four, published a piece titled “On the New Historical Beijing Opera ‘Hai Rui Dismissed from Office.” It was a 10,000 word diatribe against the popular play.
(Econ, 1/14/06, p.84)

1965 Dec 1, An airlift of refugees from Cuba to the United States began in which thousands of Cubans were allowed to leave their homeland.
(AP, 12/1/97)
1965 Dec 1, South Africa government said children of white fathers are white.
(MC, 12/1/01)

1965 Dec 3, Katarina Witt, figure skater (Olympic-Gold-1984, 88), was born in Staaken, GDR.
(MC, 12/3/01)
1965 Dec 3, Beatles began their final UK concert tour in Glasgow.
(MC, 12/3/01)
1965 Dec 3, The National Council of Churches asked the U.S. to halt the massive bombings in North Vietnam.
(HN, 12/3/98)

1965 Dec 4, The United States launched Gemini 7 with Air Force Lt. Col. Frank Borman and Navy Comdr. James A. Lovell aboard.
(AP, 12/4/97)

1965 Dec 5, Beat poets Michael McClure and Allen Ginsberg gathered with Bob Dylan at the City Lights bookstore in SF.
(SFC, 4/4/06, p.E1)
1965 Dec 5, Several dozen activists gathered in central Moscow to demand that the trial of two Soviet writers charged with anti-Soviet activity in their yet-unpublished writings, Andrei Sinyavsky (d.1997) and Yuliy Daniel, be open. They were tried in 1966 and sentenced to 6 years in prison for publishing anti-Soviet works. The rally, which was quickly dispersed, was later regarded as the first pro-democracy demonstration in the Soviet Union's history.
(SFC, 2/26/97, p.A16)(WSJ, 2/26/97, p.A1)(AP, 12/06/05)

1965 Dec 8, Abe Burrows' "Cactus Flower," premiered in NYC.
(MC, 12/8/01)

1965 Dec 9, "A Charlie Brown Christmas," premiered.
(MC, 12/9/01)
1965 Dec 9, Nikolai V. Podgorny replaced Anastas I. Mikoyan as president of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet.
(AP, 12/9/97)

1965 Dec 11, Sam Cooke (b.1931), pop singer, was shot to death by a motel manager in Los Angeles after a prostitute stole his clothes and money. His hits included “You Send Me,” “Cupid,” and “Chain Gang.” In 2005 Peter Guralnick authored “Dream Boogie: The Triumph of Sam Cooke.”
(SSFC, 10/16/05, p.M3)(

1965 Dec 15, The U.S. dropped 12 tons of bombs on an industrial center near Haiphong.
(HN, 12/15/98)
1965 Dec 15, Two U.S. manned spacecraft, Gemini 6 and Gemini 7, maneuvered to within 10 feet of each other while in orbit.
(AP, 12/15/97)
1965 Dec 15, In Karachi, Pakistan, a cyclone killed some 10,000 people.

1965 Dec 16, Somerset Maugham (91), author, died. His books included “The Moon and Sixpence” (1919), a novel whose main character is based on Paul Gauguin. In 2004 Jeffrey Meyers authored "Somerset Maugham: A Life."
(SSFC, 2/29/04, p.M3)(Econ, 3/6/04, p.75)
1965 Dec 16, Taufa’ahau Tupou IV (1918-2006) became king of Tonga following the death of his mother Queen Salote Tupou III.
(SSFC, 6/16/02, p.A18)('ahau_Tupou_IV)

1965 Dec 17, Ending an election campaign marked by bitterness and violence, Ferdinand Marcos was declared president of the Philippines.
(HN, 12/17/98)

1965 Dec 18, Kenneth LeBel jumped 17 barrels on ice skates.
(MC, 12/18/01)
1965 Dec 18, U.S. Marines attacked VC units in the Que Son Valley, South Vietnam, during Operation Harvest Moon.
(HN, 12/18/98)
1965 Dec 18, The Borman and Lovell splash down in the Atlantic ended a 2 week Gemini VII mission.
(MC, 12/18/01)

1965 Dec 19, French president De Gaulle was re-elected. Mitterrand got 45% of the vote.
(MC, 12/19/01)

1965 Dec 20, In the largest U.S. drug bust to date, 209 lb. of heroin was seized in Georgia.
(HN, 12/20/98)

1965 Dec 21, Four pacifists were indicted in New York for burning draft cards.
(HN, 12/21/98)

1965 Dec 22, The EF-105F Wild Weasel made its first kill over Vietnam.
(HN, 12/22/98)

1965 Dec 24, US troops in Vietnam reached 184,300. Gen. Westmoreland wanted 210,000 by the end of the year.
(SSFC, 6/9/02, p.F5)(Econ, 7/11/09, p.88)

1965 Dec 25, Entertainer Chris Noel gave her first performance for the USO at two hospitals in California.
(HN, 12/25/98)
1965 Dec 25, Sherman Poppen invented the "Snurfer," the first snowboard by screwing together two pairs of children’s skis.
(Hem., 12/96, p.82)

1965 Dec 26, "Funny Girl" with Barbra Streisand closed on Broadway.
(MC, 12/26/01)

1965 Dec 28, U.S. barred oil sales to Rhodesia (later Zimbabwe).
(HN, 12/28/98)

1965 Dec 29, "Thunderball" premiered in US.
(MC, 12/29/01)
1965 Dec 29, A Christmas truce was observed in Vietnam, while President Johnson tried to get the North Vietnamese to the bargaining table.
(HN, 12/29/98)

1965 Dec 30, Ferdinand E. Marcos was sworn in as the Philippine Republic's sixth president.
(SFC, 8/23/96, p.A26)(HN, 12/30/98)

1965 Dec 31, California became the largest state in population.
(HN, 12/31/98)

1965 Salvador Dali donated a sketch depicting Jesus Christ to the prison at Riker's Island, NYC, in lieu of a planned visit. On Mar 1, 2003, 4 prison officials staged a fake fire drill, stole the sketch and replaced it with a fake. The guards were caught by June and claimed the original was destroyed.
(SFC, 10/6/03, p.A2)

1965 Richard Diebenkorn painted his "Cityscape."
(SFC, 10/9/97, p.E1)

1965 Willem de Kooning (1904-1997), abstract artist, painted "Nude."
(SFC, 3/20/97, p.A6)

1965 Robert Motherwell (1915-1991), painter of the New York School, made his "Lyric Suite."
(SFEC, 3/16/97, BR p.8)

c1965 Sigmar Polke, German artist, created his work "Potato Heads: Nixon and Khrushchev."
(WSJ, 4/7/99, p.A20)

1965 Pop art gave way to Op art.
(TMC, 1994, p.1965)

1965 Andy Warhol became the manager of the Velvet Underground and suggested they feature the German-born singer Nico on several songs. Warhol's reputation helped the band gain a higher profile.

1965 William Alfred wrote his play "Hogan's Goat."
(SFEC, 5/30/99, DB p.37)

1965 Samuel Beer (1911-2009), Harvard professor, authored “British Politics in the Collectivist Age.” This established him as the foremost scholar on modern British politics.
(Econ, 5/2/09, p.88)

1965 New Directions published "Eugenio Montale: Selected Poems." Montale (1896-1981), an Italian poet writer and translator, won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1975.
(SFEC, 2/28/99, BR p.8)

1965 Sam Shepard wrote his play "Chicago."
(WSJ, 11/8/96, p.A12)
1965 The play "The Effect of Gamma Rays on Man-in-the-Moon Marigolds," written by Paul Zindel (d.2003), was 1st produced at the Alley Theater in Houston. It opened off Broadway in 1970 and was made into a film in 1972.
(SFC, 4/1/03, p.A16)

1965 Ian Barbour, physicist, published "Issues in Science and Religion."
(SFC, 3/11/99, p.A2)

1965 Raymond Dasmann (d.2002 at 83) authored "The Destruction of California." He later authored "Wildlife Biology" (1981) and "Environmental Conservation" (1984). In 2002 he authored "’The Autobiography of a Conservationist."
(SFC, 11/7/02, p.A26)

1965 Paul De Kruif authored Microbe Hunters.
(ON, 3/03, p.9)

1965 C.P. Snow authored "The Two Cultures," on the chasm between the arts and sciences.
(SFEM, 7/30/00, p.9)

1965 Rev. Edward Flannery (d.1998 at 86) of Providence, R.I., published "The Anguish of the Jews: Twenty-three Centuries of Anti-Semitism.
(SFC, 10/23/98, p.D7)

1965 Stanford Prof. Gerald Gunther (d.2002 at 75) authored the textbook "Constitutional Law." It became a gold standard on the subject.
(SFC, 8/2/02, p.A27)

1965 Leslie Halliwell, British movie maven, published "The Filmgoer’s Companion," a rudimentary Who’s Who for films.
(SFC, 9/13/00, p.C1)

1965 Richard Hofstadter authored “The Paranoid Style in American Politics: An Other Essays.” These essays deal with the conditions that have given rise to the extreme right of the 1950s and the 1960s, and the origins of certain characteristic problems of the earlier modern era when the American mind was beginning to respond to the facts of industrialism and world power.
(WSJ, 2/2/08, p.W8)(

1965 F. Clark Howell (1925-2007), UC anthropologist, authored “Early Man,” as part of the Time-Life science series.
(SFC, 3/14/07, p.B7)

1965 "The Animal Family" by Randall Jarrell was published. It was illustrated by Maurice Sendak.
(SFEC, 2/27/00, BR p.12)

1965 Consumer advocate Ralph Nader published "Unsafe At Any Speed," a book criticizing the auto industry for knowingly producing unsafe cars and not installing proper safety devices. It specifically attacked the Chevrolet Corvair.
(WSJ, 6/19/96, Adv. Supl)(SFEC, 10/13/96, Z1 p.3)

1965 Mancur Olson (d.1998 at 66), economist, published "The Logic of Collective Action," based on his doctoral thesis. He asked how interest groups were created. His reply was that people joined interest groups when the returns exceeded the cost. He showed how groups organized around a narrow interest affected laws and policies. His 1982 work "The Rise and Decline of Nations" extended his ideas to countries. In 2000 his last work "Power and Prosperity" was published. It sought to identify the incentives that spur producers, consumers and holders of political power.
(FT, 3/4/98, p.7)(WSJ, 2/16/00, p.A14)

1965 Elizabeth Taylor wrote her biography "Elizabeth Taylor."
(SFC, 8/28/96, E10)

1965 "The Killing of Sister George" by Frank Marcus (1928-1996) was first staged in England. It described a decaying lesbian relationship
(SFC, 8/8/96, p.A22)

1965 Czech author Bohumil Hrabal (1915-1997) wrote "Closely Watched Trains." In the 1980s he wrote "I Served the King of England."
(SFC, 2/4/97, p.A16)

1965 James Michener (d.1997 at 90) wrote his novel "The Source."
(SFC,10/17/97, p.A17)

1965 J.D. Salinger published his novella "Hapworth 16, 1924" in the New Yorker. It came out in book form in 1997.

1965 Robert Taber authored “War of the Flea: The Classic Study of Guerrilla Warfare.” He had witnessed Fidel Castro’s success in Cuba.
(Econ, 10/3/09, p.55)

1965 The American Conservatory Theater was founded by William Ball in 1965 in Pittsburgh. ACT moved west and settled in at the Geary Theater in SF in 1967.
(SFEC, 3/8/98, p.W29)

1965 The musical "Anya" was written by George Forrest and Robert Wright.
(SFC, 10/13/99, p.C2)

1965 Harold Fielding (d.2003 at 86) produced "Charlie Girl" in London. It ran for over 5 years.
(SFC, 10/4/03, p.A18)

1965 The musical Don Quixote opened on Broadway and ran for 5 years with Richard Kiley (d.1999 at 76) as the "Man of La Mancha."
(SFC, 3/6/99, p.A21)

1965 Charlton Heston took over as president of the Screen Actors Guild. He held the position until a liberal revolt in 1971.
(WSJ, 9/2/06, p.P9)

1965 The first animated Peanuts TV Special was broadcast on CBS.
(SFC, 12/15/99, p.E1)

1965 The TV series “Honey West” starred Anne Francis (d.2012 at 80). She played a sexy private eye in the series, which continued to 1966.
(SFC, 1/4/11, p.C5)

1965 The TV series Wild, Wild West began and ran to 1970. Government agents Jim West and Artemus Gordon tracked Arliss Loveless, who sought to assassinate Pres. Grant.
(SFEC, 6/27/99, BR p.45)

1965 Louis Armstrong sang "Hello Dolly." The song was written by Jerry Herman for the remake of the Thornton Wilder play "Matchmaker." The name of the play was changed to "Hello, Dolly!" after the song became a hit before the play opened.
(SFEC, 12/1/96, BR p.1)

1965 Syd Barrett (1946-2006) co-founded Pink Floyd with Roger Waters, Nick Mason and Rick Wright, and wrote many of the band's early songs. Barrett became mentally unstable from the pressures of drugs and fame and had to leave the band in 1968, five years before Pink Floyd's most popular album, "Dark Side of the Moon."
(AP, 7/11/06)

1965 James Brown (1928-2006), the dynamic "Godfather of Soul," produced his classic song “I Got You (I Feel Good),” later considered one of the all-time greatest in rock’s cannon.
(SFC, 12/26/06, p.A7)

1965 The SF-based Beau Brummels and lead singer Sal Valentino made a hit with “Laugh Laugh.”
(SFC, 2/22/06, p.E1)

1965 Sonny Bono and Cher had a hit with their song "I Got You Babe."
(SFC, 1/7/98, p.E1)

1965 Cannibal & the Headhunters, a group from East Los Angeles, made a hit with their doo-wop recording of “Land of 1000 Dances.” Founding member Richard “Scar” Lopez (b.1945) died in 2010. The song was written and first recorded by Chris Kenner in 1962.
(SFC, 8/20/10, p.C5)(

1965 Bob Dylan (23) did a tour of England that was chronicled in the film "Don’t Look Back" by D.A. Pennebaker.
(SFEC, 2/8/98, p.D5)

1965 John Fogarty and his band, the Golliwogs, had a hit with the song "Brown-Eyed Girl. Under direction from Saul Zaentz of Fantasy Records they soon changed their name to Creedence Clearwater Revival.
(SFEM, 3/23/97, p.28)

1965 Jerry Garcia and The Grateful Dead began playing.
(SFC, 7/5/96, p.E4)

1965 Marvin Gaye sang "Ain’t That Peculiar."
(SFC, 11/12/02, p.D1)

1965 Curtis Mayfield and the Impressions had a hit with the song "People Get Ready."
(SFC, 12/28/99, p.C1)

1965 The Miracles sang "Tracks of My Tears."
(SFC, 11/12/02, p.D1)

1965 Pharoah Sanders, jazz saxophonist, debuted his 1st album: “Pharoah’s First.”
(SFC, 4/19/06, p.E3)

1965 Frank Sinatra won a Grammy award for his song, "It Was a Very Good Year."
(SFC, 5/16/98, p.E7)

1965 The Supremes sang "Stop! In the Name Love," Back in My Arms Again," and "I Hear a Symphony."
(SFC, 11/12/02, p.D1)

1965 The Lynyrd Skynyrd rock and roll band was formed. Their 1973 debut album included "Free Bird." Their hit songs included "Sweet Home Alabama."
(SFEC, 8/17/97, DB p.69)(WSJ, 3/17/05, p.A1)

1965 Koko Taylor (1928-2009, Chicago blues singer, made a hit with “Wang Dang Doodle” and made it signature piece.
(SFC, 6/5/09, p.B6)

1965 Junior Walker & the All Stars played "Shotgun."
(SFC, 11/12/02, p.D1)

1965 Stevie Wonder sang "Uptight (Everything’s Alright)."
(SFC, 11/12/02, p.D1)

1965 Folk-rock edged in next to Rock-n-roll.
(TMC, 1994, p.1965)

1965 Ray Repp made his groundbreaking album: "Mass for Young Americans."
(WSJ, 9/16/96, p.B8)

1965 The Righteous Brothers released their song: "You’ve Lost That Lovin’ Feeling." It was produced by Phil Spector.
(SFEC, 10/20/96, DB, p.65)(SFEC, 10/5/97, DB p.74)

1965 The Sir Douglas Quintet with Doug Sahm had a hit with the song "She's About a Mover."
(SFC, 11/20/99, p.A22)

1965 Franz Waxman composed his "Song of Terezin" for the Cincinnati May Festival. The choral song cycle was written to poetry by children at the notorious Polish concentration camp.
(WSJ, 3/5/99, p.W10)

1965 In Britain The Who made 3 consecutive hits with "I Can’t Explain," "Anyway Anyhow Anywhere," and "My Generation." The group included bassist John Entwistle (d.2002), drummer Keith Moon (d.1978), singer Roger Daltrey, and guitarist Pete Townshend.
(SFC, 6/28/02, p.A2)

1965 The Kahala Hilton Hotel opened on Oahu, Hawaii.
(WSJ, 9/18/96, Ad. Supl. p.16)

1965 In NYC the 1910 grand Pennsylvania Station was torn down and replaced. Demolition had begun in 1963.
(SFEC, 7/4/99, p.T4)
1965 NYC enacted its landmark Preservation Act. Lawyer Albert Bard (1866-1963) was chief among the preservation champions. The act was prompted by the demolition of the original Pennsylvania Station, to make way for the construction of the current Madison Square Garden, which was being relocated from 50th Street and Eighth Avenue. In 2008 Anthony C. Wood authored “Preserving New York,” and illustrated history of how the act came about.
(WSJ, 1/12/08, p.W8)(

1965 In Detroit, Mich., Dr. Charles Wright began a private collection of African American cultural artifacts that developed into the 1997 $38.4 million Museum of African American History.
(SFEC, 2/23/96, p.T5)

1965 Irving Kristol (1920-2009), political writer and publisher, and Daniel Bell (1919-2011) founded the “Public Interest,” an American quarterly public policy journal.
(Econ, 9/26/09, p.100)(

1965 Ron Karenga founded US, a black power movement in Southern California shortly after the Watts riots. In 2003 Scot Brown authored "Fighting for US: Maulana Karenga, the US Organization and Black Cultural Nationalism."
(SSFC, 8/3/03, p.M6)

1965 Bernard Rimland (1928-2006), psychologist, founded “The Autism Society of America.” In 1964 he had authored “Infantile Autism: The Syndrome and its Implications for a Neural Theory of Behavior.” In 1967 he started what came to be called the Autism Research Institute in San Diego.
(, 11/27/06, p.B6)

1965 In Canal Winchester, Ohio, the Barbering Hall of Fame was established.
(WSJ, 7/30/99, p.A1)

1965 The Mod fashion was in and skirts moved way up.
(TMC, 1994, p.1965)

1965 The Scopitone was a quick fad that used jukebox machines to show music, video-like, short films.
(SFC, 10/14/96, p.A23)

1965 The International Swimming Hall of Fame opened in Fort Lauderdale, Florida under the direction of Buck Dawson.
(MT, Fall ‘96, p.9)

1965 Muhammad Ali scored victories over Sonny Liston and Floyd Patterson. In 1998 David Remnick authored "King of the World." Ali’s own autobiography was titled "The Greatest."
(WSJ, 10/21/98, p.A20)

1965 The PGA began its Tournament Training and Qualifying Program as a sort of finishing school for aspiring golf professionals. In 2000 David Gould authored "Q School Confidential: Inside Golf's Cruelest Tournament."
(WSJ, 1/13/00, p.A20)

1965 Richard Feynman won Nobel prize in Physics for his work in quantum electrodynamics.
(SFEC, 8/3/97, BR p.3)
1965 Mikhail Sholokhov (b.1905), Russian novelist (And Quiet Flows the Don), won a Nobel Prize in Literature.
(HN, 5/24/01)(MC, 5/24/02)

1965 Lyndon Johnson escalated the war in Vietnam.
(TMC, 1994, p.1965)

1965 The US sustained bombing mission known as "Rolling Thunder" was begun in Vietnam.
(SFC, 10/3/97, p.B14)

1965 Bobby Garwood, a marine private motor pool driver, was reported to have gone over to the enemy in Vietnam. He became hunted by Col. Tom McKenney who led a US assassin team to track down deserters and POWs accused of working with the Communists. Garwood maneuvered his release from a POW camp in 1979 and underwent a military trial in 1980. His story is told by Monika Jensen-Stevenson in the 1997 book: "Spite House: The Last Secret of the War in Vietnam."
(SFEC, 7/6/97, BR p.9)

1965 John Paul Vann (d.972), American military adviser, returned to Vietnam as a civilian adviser. He had achieved outstanding tactical results in the field, but retired from the Army. In 1963 Lieutenant Colonel John Paul Vann was the adviser to the ARVN 7th Infantry Division, commanded by Colonel Huynh Van Cao. Despite Vann’s success in the field, he alienated Cao and the military-political rulers in Saigon. Reassigned to the Pentagon after his advisory tour, Vann decided that his experience in Vietnam would cost him further promotion, and he retired from the Army. After a stint in the private sector, Vann returned to Vietnam in 1965 as a pacification representative for the Agency of International Development (AID). Vann eventually rose to the level of senior adviser for the Central Highlands, a position that gave him authority over all U.S. military forces in the region. The authority was equivalent to that of a major general. As principal adviser for an ARVN general who commanded 158,000 troops in the region, he was one of the most influential Americans in Vietnam, after the ambassador and the commanding general of MACV.
(HNQ, 9/27/01)

1965 Medicare and Medicaid began to provide health insurance for the elderly, poor and disabled.
(SFEC, 1/5/97, zone 1 p.5)

1965 The Supreme Court ruled in Griswold vs. Connecticut to invalidate a state law prohibiting the use of contraceptives. The court ruled that the government cannot regulate a married couple's use of birth control.
(SFC, 1/22/98, p.A22)(NW, 6/30/03, p.44)

1965 The Federal Immigration Act abolished quotas by national origin and allowed nearly 300,000 immigrants per year.
(SFEC, 9/20/98, Z1 p.6)

1965 Niger's began planting trees for a green belt around its capital, Niamey, five years after the country proclaimed independence from France. Planting continued to 1993 as funding for the 4.5 million-euro (6.2 million-dollar) project came mainly from abroad. The belt began to decline as hundreds of rural people fled to the capital to escape the severe famine of 1984. By 2011 almost half of its original 2,000-hectare (nearly 5,000-acre) surface area had disappeared.
(AFP, 11/1/11)

1965 The US National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) was established. Its initial budget was $2.5 million. In 2000 Lynne Munson authored "Exhibitionism: Art in an Era of Intolerance," which in part covered the history of the NEA. In 2001 Michael Brenson authored "Visionaries and Outcasts: The NEA, Congress, and the Place of Visual Arts in America."
(SFC,12/9/97, p.A1)(WSJ, 12/13/00, p.A24)(SSFC, 3/25/01, BR p.5)

1965 Daniel Patrick Moynihan (1927-2003), while employed under Pres. Kennedy at the Dept. of Labor, authored a report that attributed problems among blacks to the deterioration of the family structure. In this year 8% of children were born to unmarried parents. By 2006 a third of all US children were born to unmarried parents as well as nearly 70% of black children.
(SFC, 3/27/03, p.A15)(WSJ, 11/20/06, p.A1)

1965 The US $2 bill was discontinued.
(SFC, 9/14/96, p.A4)

1965 A long term bear market began in the US that lasted to 1982. The following bull market ran to 2000.
(Econ, 10/18/08, p.86)

1965 The United States replaced silver-alloy quarters and dimes with coins of copper-and-nickel composition. Non-silver half-dollars and dollar coins were introduced in the U.S. in 1971.
(HNQ, 10/30/99)

1965 George P. Cressman (1919-2008) was named head of the US National Weather Service. In 1966 he started expressing its forecasts in terms of probability.
(WSJ, 5/10/08, p.A8)

1965 LSD was restricted by the government. [see Oct 1966]
(SFEC, 10/6/96, Par p.4)

1965 Sam Giancana, a mob boss, was jailed under US Attorney Edward Hanrahan.
(SFEC, 8/31/97, p.B5)

1965 California State Assemblyman John Williamson (d.1998 at 85) authored the California Land Conservation Act that offered tax breaks to farmers who agreed not to sell their property for at least 10 years. In 1998 the Williamson Act was amended to increase the farm preservation contracts from 10 to 30 years.
(SFC, 10/14/98, p.C3)
1965 Harold Bachman (1921-2005) designed the logo for San Francisco’s Doggie Diner. His dachshund head design was turned into a rotating giant head for the chain of diners founded by Al Ross (d.2010 at 93). Ross had founded Doggie diner in Oakland on San Pablo and 19th Ave. in 1948 and sold his chain in 1979.
(SFC, 10/6/05, p.B7)(SFC, 4/5/10, p.C6)
1965 Ken Kesey, author of "Sometimes a Great Notion," and 13 pals, that included Neal Cassidy, were arrested in La Honda for growing Marijuana.
(SFC, 5/24/97, p.A8)
1965 The US Navy lowered SeaLab II was lowered off the coast of San Diego to see if divers could be sustained on a helium-oxygen mix. Lawrence Jue (1915-2005), a Chinese-American, was the principal of the project [see 1969].
(SFC, 3/29/02, p.A2)(SFC, 12/9/05, p.B5)
1965 A Navy dolphin named Tuffy carried tools and messages to Sealab II divers off the coast of La Jolla, Ca.
(SFC, 4/11/03, p.D1)
1965 In San Francisco the 16-story building at 450 Sansome St. was built with a design by architect Richard Hadley.
(SSFC, 4/26/09, p.B3)
1965 Fritz Maytag saved the Anchor Brewing Co. in San Francisco when he returned it to traditional brewing methods.
(SFC, 8/7/96, p.B1)
1965 Serpentine was named the state rock of California.
(CW, Fall ‘03, p.42)

1965 US Steel workers negotiated the right to retire on a full pension after 30 years of service, regardless of age.
(WSJ, 5/12/03, p.A6)

1965 Fred DeLuca, fresh out of high school, founded Subway, a sandwich shop, with $1,000 start-up money from a family friend. By 2007 it was the world’s largest sandwich chain with over 25,000 stores in 83 countries.
(WSJ, 1/10/07, p.C2)

1965 International Harvester introduced its turbocharged Farmall 1206 tractor.
(WSJ, 1/3/07, p.A1)

1965 Carroll Shelby began producing the Shelby 427 Cobra. It was a 2-seater with a race-car body designed in Britain and an 8-cylinder, 500 horsepower engine from Ford.
(WSJ, 3/28/97, p.B1)

1965 The Pepsi-Cola Co. changed its name to PepsiCo.
(SFC, 2/18/98, p.B2)

1965 The Philip Morris Tobacco Co. began using ammonia compounds to make smoke less acidic and provide a stronger dose of nicotine.
(SFC, 2/9/98, p.A2)

1965 A 7-Eleven manager happened upon an Icee machine in a rival's store. He saw potential and got them into three 7-Eleven stores. Slurpee was born in Kansas at a Dairy Queen where owner Omar Knedlik served semi-frozen bottled soft drinks. When they were a hit, he worked with a Dallas company to develop the "Icee" machine that replicated that consistency in slushy soft drinks served at 28 degrees.
(USAT, 7/11/05)

1965 Time Magazine entered the fledgling cable TV business.
(WSJ, 1/11/00, p.B1)
1965 Helen Gurley Brown, author of “Sex and the Single Girl” (1963), took over the running of Cosmopolitan magazine.
(SFC, 8/19/05, p.E9)

1965 David Lett (d.2008 at 69) began Eyrie Vineyards in the Dundee Hills of Oregon with some 3,000 baby vines of the Pinot Noir grape. His 1975 vintage ranked among the top 10 at a prestigious Paris tasting in 1979.
(SSFC, 10/12/08, p.B6)

1965 In this year 30 chiefs from big [US] companies were paid 44 times more than the average American employee. In 1995 the multiple was 212.
(WSJ, 5/13/96, p.B-1)

1965 Oil companies began eyeing the Grand Banks of Canada when seismic surveys revealed oil potential.
(SFC, 9/2/96, p.D5)

1965 A Univ. of Florida professor invented Gatorade. The drink earned him and his school millions in royalties.
(WSJ, 8/27/96, p.C1)

1965 Kevlar was invented by Stephanie Kwolek, a chemist for DuPont, while experimenting with polymers for new ways to reinforce car tires. In 1970 Herbert Blades of DuPont developed a process for mass production. Marketing began in 1971. Soon after that Lester Shubin (1925-2001), a US Justice Dept. researcher, began developing Kevlar, into body armor for police and soldiers.
(SFC, 4/7/03, p.E2)(SFC, 11/28/09, p.C4)

1965 Eugene Fama (b.1939), American economist, first proposed his efficient market hypothesis at the University of Chicago Booth School of Business as an academic concept of study through his published Ph.D. thesis.
(Econ, 8/8/09, p.67)(

1965 Martin Seligman, psychologist, conducted experiments with dogs subjected to electric shock and found that they “learned helplessness” when unable to escape shocks.
(Econ, 3/31/07, p.63)

1965 The Big Bang Theory of the Universe was announced.
(TMC, 1994, p.1965)

1965 At California’s Berkeley Univ. campus, engineering professor Lotfi Zadeh introduced the ideas of Fuzzy Logic.
(Hem, Dec. 94, p.102)
1965 In Berkeley, Ca., a groups of native plant enthusiasts banded together to save a Berkeley native plant botanic garden from being sacrificed for development. This gave birth to the California Native Plant Society (CNPS), dedicated to the preservation and enjoyment of native plants.
1965 Bethlehem Steel built the Bradley, a carrier escort ship. This was its last ship that Bethlehem built at SF Pier 70 facility. During the 1960s 57 sections of underwater steel tubes for BART were created at the shipyards.
(SSFC, 9/14/08, p.A11)

1965 The astronaut, Ed White, took a walk in space.
(TMC, 1994, p.1965)

1965 In western New York the Kinzua Dam on the Allegheny River opened. Construction of the dam forced the departure of Pennsylvania's last Native Americans, the Senecas, who now live near Salamanca, New York, on the northern shores of land flooded by the dam.

1965 There were just 587,000 visitors to Hawaii.
(WSJ, 9/18/96, Ad. Supl. p.16)

1965 Prof. Kenneth Norris (1924-1998) helped create the UC Natural Reserve System (NRS). In 1998 the system encompassed 120,000 acres of protected habitat across California.
(SFC, 8/31/98, p.A22)

1965 Milton Avery (b.1893), artist, died. His work was collected by Roy Neuberger, founder of the Neuberger Museum of Art in Purchase, N.Y.
(WSJ, 7/13/99, p.A20)

1965 Clara Bow, silent film star, died. David Stenn later authored "Clara Bow: Runnin’ Wild."
(SFC, 6/21/02, p.D6)

1965 Dickey Chalelle, Female correspondent and photographer, died in Vietnam.
(WSJ, 12/15/98, p.A20)

1965 Henry Cowell (b.1897), pianist and composer, died. He originated the term "tone cluster" to denote a contiguous group of notes played at once. His work included a Piano Concerto, "The Aeolian Harp," and "The Banshee."
(SFEC, 1/26/97 DB, p.33)

1965 Dorothy Dandridge (41), actress, died of a prescription drug overdose. Earl Mills later authored "Dorothy Dandridge: S Portrait in Black," and Donald Bogle wrote "Dorothy Dandridge: A Biography." A 1999 HBO biopic was based on the Mills book.
(SFEC, 8/15/99, DB p.44)

1965 Gertrude Hurler (b.1889), Austrian pediatrician, died. In 1919 she described the autosomal recessive disease (MPS) that results from deficiency of alpha-l-iduronidase, which leads to severe mental retardation with a typical "gargoyle" facial appearance (Hurler's Syndrome). Major Charles H. Hunter, Canadian Army Medical Corps, 1st described it in 1917.
(WSJ, 7/8/03, p.A8)(www.medcyclopaedia)

1965 Shirley Jackson, writer and author of horror fiction, died. Her work included "The Haunting of Hill House" and "The Lottery." In 1997 a collection of short fiction was published titled "Just an Ordinary Day."
(SFEM, 1/12/97, BR p.3)

1965 Randall Jarrell (b.1914), author, critic and translator, died after being hit by a car while walking on a country road. In 1999 Brad Leithauser edited his selected essays: "No Other Book: Selected Essays by Randall Jarrell." Mary von Schrader Jarrell, Randall's wife, authored "Remembering Jarrell." Jarrell's work included the academic novel "Pictures From an Institution."
(WSJ, 6/29/99, p.A12)

1965 Charles E. Jeanneret (b.1887), aka Le Corbusier, Swiss-born French architect and city planner, died. He and Amedee Ozenfant had authored the modernist manifesto "After Cubism."
(HN, 10/6/00)(V.D.-H.K.p.363)

1965 Carr Jones (b.1885), SF Bay Area architect, died. His work was rooted in the 19th century Arts and Crafts tradition.
(SFC, 9/13/03, p.E1)

1965 John Kelly Jr. (41), Bell Labs researcher, died in NYC. His Kelly System, reduced to 2 axioms, instructed how to distribute wagers among different stocks and how big wagers should be relative to a bankroll. In 2005 William Poundstone authored “Fortune’s Formula,” the story of the Kelly System.
(WSJ, 9/16/05, p.W8)

1965 William Pitsenbarger, an Air Force Pararescue man, died. He volunteered to descend from a helicopter to the jungle floor to help a company of the 1st Infantry Division that was pinned down and fighting for its life. He rescued many wounded soldiers, and he refused evacuation himself after he was wounded several times, finally fatally. He was awarded a posthumous Air Force Cross, but the men of the company he went to help fought for many years to get the award upgraded to the Medal of Honor. Pitsenbarger was one of only two Air Force enlisted men to earn the Medal of Honor in Vietnam, and the first since the end of World War II.
(HNQ, 6/18/02)

1965 Dawn Powell (b.1896), Ohio-born American comic novelist, died. Her work anatomized and skewered New York and included her autobiographical novel "My Home Is Far Away." In 1998 Tim page authored: "Dawn Powell: A Biography." In 1995 Page published an abridged edition of her diaries.
(WSJ, 10/19/98, p.A24)(SFEC, 2/14/99, BR p.5)

1965 Jack Spicer (40), poet, died of alcohol poisoning. The "Collected Book of Jack Spicer" was published nearly 10 years after his death. In 1998 Lewis Ellingham and Kevin Killian published "Poet Be Like God: Jack Spicer and the San Francisco Renaissance. "The House That Jack Built : the Collected Lectures of Jack Spicer was also published in 1998 with an afterward by Peter Gizzi.
(SFEC, 1/3/99, BR p.3)

1965 Henry A. Wallace (b.1888), former vice-president (1941-1945), died. He was the founder of Pioneer Hi-Bred Corp. and served as the Sec. of Agriculture from 1933-1940. In 2000 John C. Culver and John Hyde authored the biography "American Dreamer."
(WSJ, 4/5/00, p.A24)(WUD, 1994 p.1606)

1965 Arab states signed the Charter of Arab Honor, an Arab league ordnance designed to curb an aggressive Lebanese press and to discourage mutually hostile regimes from attacking each other.
(SFC, 6/19/00, p.A5)

1965 Brazil’s Forest Code of this year required private landowners to leave to leave forests standing on part of their farms. In the Amazon this was set at four-fifths. This particular requirement has never been effectively implemented.
(Econ, 12/3/11, p.47)(
1965 Roberto Marinho broke into Brazil’s television industry. By 1995 Rede Globo became the world's fourth largest TV network.
(WSJ, 12/4/95, p.A-9)

1965 In Britain Bob Guccione founded Penthouse Magazine. It was a sex magazine with more provocative poses than Playboy Magazine.
(WSJ, 3/22/96, p.A-1)
1965 The first automatic teller machines came from England.
(SFC, 7/6/96, p.E4)
1965 Imre Lakatos of London's School of Economics organized a session chaired by Karl Popper at which philosopher Thomas Kuhn spoke. In 2003 Steve Fuller authored "Kuhn vs. Popper: The Struggle for the Soul of Science."
(Econ, 8/9/03, p.71)

1965 Canada required its senators to step down at age 75.
(Econ, 1/2/10, p.30)

1965 In the Central African Republic Col. Jean-Bedel Bokassa, commander of the army and minister of defense, was picked by France to overthrow David Dacko when Dacko began establishing close ties with China.
(SFC, 11/4/96, p.A22)

1965 The Gang of Four included Wang Hongwen, Yao Wen-yuan, Zhang Chunqiao (1917-2005) and Mao Zedong’s third wife, Jiang Qing. All four were relatively low-ranking members of the Communist party, albeit favored by Mao. Beginning around 1965, they were able to manipulate the media and youth to leverage their positions over party moderates, such as Deng Xiaoping. Mao’s death in 1976 ended their influence and led to their imprisonment and trial in 1980-81 for their role in the Cultural Revolution.
(HNQ, 6/6/01)(SFC, 5/11/05, p.B7)
1965 China began the construction of a subway system in Beijing. The first line of 17 miles began regular service in 1981. By 2008 the subway network boasted 8 lines over 120 miles.
(WSJ, 1/6/09, p.A10)
1965 In China the local government of Pingyang, near the southern provincial capital of Nanning, built a smelting factory for lead and antimony. For decades the waste was discarded in piles near farmland, where rains washed the metals into fields and ponds used to water crops. Villagers later tested for extremely high levels of lead, cadmium and other metals. The factory was torn down in 2004.
(WSJ, 6/30/07, p.A12)
1965 Chinese military researchers isolated artemisinin, a compound based on sweet wormwood, and found to be very effective against malaria.
(SFC, 5/10/04, p.A5)(Econ, 11/20/04, p.81)

1965 In Cuba Carlos Rafael Rodriguez (d.1997 at 84), "El Tio," was a founding member of the Cuban Communist Party. From 1962-1965 he was the head of the National Institute of Agrarian Reform and became a deputy prime minister in charge of foreign affairs in 1972.
(SFC,12/10/97, p.C5)
1965 Czechoslovakia adopted the economic ideas of Ota Sik to improve on stagnant industrial growth. His “new economic model” called for limited reforms of the Soviet system including less central planning.
(SFC, 8/25/04, p.B7)

1965 In the Dominican Republic Jose Pena Gomez incited a popular uprising on radio and demanded the restoration of Pres. Bosch. Leftists in the army revolted and Pres. Lyndon Johnson sent in 23,000 US Marines to prevent a Cuban-style revolution.
(SFC, 5/12/98, p.A21)

1965 In Egypt journalist Mustafa Amin was arrested while meeting an American diplomat in Alexandria and accused of being an American spy. He was later freed by Pres. Anwar Sadat.
(SFC, 4/14/97, p.A19)

1965 Former King Farouk of Egypt died at a restaurant in Rome. The obese monarch was notorious for his decadent lifestyle. The David Freeman novel "One of Us" is based on his life and times.
(SFEC,11/9/97, Par p.2)

1965 In France IBM established a large manufacturing plant in Montpellier.
(WSJ, 1/11/98, p.R23)

1965 Werner Tubke, German artist, created his painting “Reminiscences of Schulze, JD III.”
(WSJ, 2/10/09, p.D7)

1965 In Honduras Col. Oswaldo Lopez Arellano held a constitutional assembly that formalized his position as president of Honduras.
(AP, 5/17/10)

1965 Two Hong Kong banks went bust. Depositor calls on the government to be made good were dismissed.
(Econ, 7/17/10, p.74)

1965 India and Pakistan began a second war over Kashmir.
(WSJ, 6/11/96, p.A12)(SFEC, 8/3/97, p.A15)

1965 The 1983 film “The Year of Living Dangerously” with Mel Gibson was set in Indonesia’s 1965 civil war. An estimated 250-500 thousand Indonesians were killed on suspicion of being Communist Party members or sympathizers. US CIA and Embassy officials later admitted that they furnished as many as 5000 names of “communist” leaders to the Indonesian army.
(WSJ, 8/17/95, p.A-1)(SFEC, 4/27/97, p.T6)(SFC, 5/16/00, p.A12,14)(SFC, 9/6/00, p.D2)
1965 Indonesia became the first nation ever to withdraw from the United Nations. Indonesia withdrew in protest of the seating of Malaysia on the UN Security Council. The former Dutch colony bitterly opposed the formation of its neighbor Malaysia in 1963, refusing to recognize it and waging a guerilla war against it. In 1966 a peace agreement with Malaysia was reached and shortly thereafter Indonesia resumed its membership in the UN.
(HNQ, 5/14/98)
1965 Indonesia enacted a blasphemy law in order to prevent abuse of religions.
(Econ, 5/1/10, p.44)(

1965 Rabbi Adin Steinsaltz (b.1938) began his translation and commentary on the Talmud. In 2010 he published the last book of his 46-volume series. His translation of the Talmud from Aramaic to Hebrew, with his own added comments, marked his crowning achievement.
(AP, 11/9/10)
1965 Teddy Kollek (1911-2007) was elected as mayor of Jerusalem. He sought to bring Arabs into the Jewish governed city as social and economic equals. In 1993 he was defeated in a run for a 7th term by Ehud Olmert of the Likud Party.
(SFC, 10/18/96, C8)(SFC, 1/3/07, p.A2)
1965 Israel’s Netafim began on a Kibbutz in the Negev desert as a firm selling drip irrigations systems. By 2011 it boasted sales of over $600 million.
(Econ, 5/14/11, p.81)

1965 Luciano Benetton was one of 4 family members who launched the Italian Benetton clothing group.
(Econ, 11/3/07, p.82)

1965 Ivory Coast, formerly French West Africa, established independence.
(WUD, 1994, p.759)

1965 The government of Japan signed a peace treaty with South Korea that covered reparation claims of South Korean women used as sex slaves.
(Jap. Enc., BLDM, p. 216)(SFC, 4/22/98, p.A11)
1965 Japan’s PM Eisaku Sato told US Defense Secretary Robert McNamara that American military forces could launch a nuclear attack on China by sea if needed. This information was not made public until 2008.
(AP, 12/21/08)

1965 Mexico’s Border Industrialization Program (BIP) was first introduced. It led to the construction of foreign-owned maquiladoras (assembly plants) to produce goods for export.
(MT, summer 2003, p.22)

1965 Niger's began planting trees for a green belt around its capital, Niamey, five years after the country proclaimed independence from France. Planting continued to 1993 as funding for the 4.5 million-euro (6.2 million-dollar) project came mainly from abroad. The belt began to decline as hundreds of rural people fled to the capital to escape the severe famine of 1984. By 2011 almost half of its original 2,000-hectare (nearly 5,000-acre) surface area had disappeared.
(AFP, 11/1/11)

1965 Yasser Arafat formed his Fatwah movement for the Liberation of Palestine.
(SFC, 9/8/03, p.A8)

1965 Peruvian author Mario Vargas Llosa wrote his novel "The Green House."
(Civilization, July-Aug, 1995, p. 18)
1965 Peru cut a trail through the jungle to Inapari, its border town across from Assis, Brazil.
(Econ, 3/26/05, p.40)

1965 Rarotonga of the Cook Islands was colonized by the British but ruled until this year by New Zealand.
(SFEC, 1/5/97, p.T6)

1965 Television arrive in Saudi Arabia. It caused riots until senior clerics grasped that they could use it to promote their faith.
(Econ, 1/7/06, Survey p.9)

1965 Hafez al-Assad became Syria's defense minister. He was a member of the Alawite clan, an offshoot of Shiite Islam. Nearly 80% of Syrians are Sunnis.
(WSJ, 1/9/96, p.A-1)
1965 The Syrian Arab News Agency (SANA), a state media organization linked to the Ministry of Information, was established.

1965 The United Nations added 4 non-permanent seats to the Security Council, bringing the non-permanent total to 10 and the whole to 15.

1965 The 21st Vatican Council, begun in 1962 and later known as the Second Vatican Council (Vatican II), ended. In 2008 John W. O’Malley authored “What Happened at Vatican II.”
(WSJ, 12/26/08, p.A11)

1965 Nguyen Van Thieu, the South Vietnam ruling junta's chairman of the National Directorate, became chief of state.
(SFC, 10/1/01, p.B2)
1965 In Vietnam the Thuan Thanh center was established for wounded soldiers. In 1997 it was but one of 57 veteran’s centers across the country.
(SFC, 10/3/97, p.B14)

1965 In Zaire Laurent-Desiree Kabila, Marxist revolutionary, fought with Ernesto "Che" Guevara on behalf of the People’s Revolutionary Party.
(WSJ, 11/8/96, p.A10)
1965 In Zaire (later Congo) Army Chief-of-Staff Mobutu Sese Seko, a member of the Gbandi tribe, seized power in a military coup and began his dictatorship. His name meant “the cock who goes from homestead to homestead leaving no hen uncovered.”
(SFC, 10/28/96, p.A8)(SFC, 12/18/96, p.C2)(SFEC, 4/6/97, p.A16)(Econ, 12/18/04, p.61)

1965-1966 King Faisal bin Abd al-Aziz defied Islamist opposition and introduced women’s education and television. There were 70 female university students in Saudi Arabia. In 2001 the number reached 200,000, 54% of the student population.
(WSJ, 1/2/02, p.A1)(WSJ, 6/30/04, p.A7)

1965-1968 The 3rd Betty Crocker [General Mills advertising icon] made her appearance.
(WSJ, 7/5/96, p.A6)

1965-1968 The Mamas and the Papas consisted of Dennis Doherty, Michelle Phillips, John Phillips and Cass Elliot (d.1974). Their songs over this period included "California Dreamin’" and "Monday Monday."
(SFC, 1/14/98, p.D3)

1965-1969 Roberto Sanchez Vilella (1913-1997) became the 2nd governor of Puerto Rico.
(SFC, 3/26/97, p.C3)

1965-1970 Cheryl Scott killed 4 of her children, aged 11 days to 14 months, during this period. 3 died in southern California and the 4th in Mendocino County. In 2006 Cheryl Athene Miller was charged in Ukiah, Ca., with the murders after her brother revealed the secret they had kept for decades. In 2007 Miller was released for lack of evidence.
(SFC, 11/2/06, p.B1)(SFC, 6/23/07, p.B6)

1965-1971 In the US "Hogan’s Heroes" ran for 168 episodes. Werner Klemperer (d.2000 at 80) played the role of Col. Klink.
(WSJ, 5/31/96, p.A8)(SFC, 12/8/00, p.D11)

1965-1972 Sir Martin Jones (d.1997 at 84) led M15, the British counterintelligence agency. He had succeeded Sir Roger Hollis.
(SFC, 3/17/97, p.A22)

1965-1973 General Bob Worley was the only U.S. Air Force general officer to die in actual combat during the Vietnam War. He was a tactical fighter pilot whose RF-4C Phantom caught fire while on a patrol over North Vietnam.
(HNQ, 12/18/02)
1965-1973 Some 300,000 South Korean troops fought alongside US forces in Vietnam. In 1998 South Korea expressed to Hanoi its regret for its participation in the war.
(WSJ, 12/16/98, p.A1)

1965-1975 Solomon Barkin (d.2000), labor economist, writer and professor, covered this period in his book "Worker Militancy and Its Consequences." His work also included "The Decline of the labor Movement and What Can Be Done About It."
(SFC, 4/8/00, p.A23)

1965-1979 In Indonesia Pramoedya Ananta Toer, outspoken writer, was arrested and put into a labor camp on the island of Buru. He was never charged with a crime.
(WSJ, 4/30/99, p.W9)

1965-1975 In Tajikistan the large aluminum smelting plant at Tursunzadeh was built.
(WSJ, 7/2/98, p.A1)

1965-1981 In Bolivia military regimes ran the country. Their human rights violations were documented in the 1993 book "Never Again for Bolivia" by Jesuit author Federico Aguilo.
(SFC, 3/15/97, p.A11)

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